Topic: Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences
Research papers chosen
The impact of corporate sustainability on organizational processes and performance, by Robert G. Eccles, Ioannis Ioannou and George Serafeim and The strength of corporate culture and the reliability of firm performance by Jesper B. Sorensen
A research hypothesis is an assumption made by the researcher before undertaking the actual research and forms part of the expected outputs and research results. The null hypothesis is a negative expectation that nothing is actually going on and is assumed true until proven otherwise. The researcher in this case presumes that there is no significant difference in the data or information under examination. When a statistical test results into a significance difference, then the researcher rejects the null hypothesis (Dytham, 2011).
Statistically, the null hypothesis is denoted by H0 and states that the difference between the observed value and the hypothesized value is only due to chance variation.
From the research paper read, the researchers have a null hypothesis that companies that willingly incorporate social and environmental policies in their business models present primarily a distinctive type of fresh cooperation with numerous benefits (Eccles, Ioannou, & Serafein, 2013).
In the second paper, the researcher had three hypotheses but for the purpose of the task one argument was selected. The researcher argues that firms with a strong culture do extremely well at incremental modifications but come across complicatedness in more unstable environments.
Statistically, the null hypothesis is either true or false and there are two ways of ending up with the wrong conclusions in a research or test. These errors are termed as the type I and type II errors. The type 1 error states that the null hypothesis is true but the research or a statistical test results into the conclusion that the hypothesis is false, hence resulting into what is known as a “false positive. The type 11 error states that the null hypothesis is false but the research or test shows that it is true resulting into a “false negative”. The type 1 error is shown as a more dangerous error to make in research than type 11 error. Any research that enhances the opportunity of having a type 11 error while reducing the chance of getting the type1 error is known as a conservative research, while vice versa, the test is said to be liberal (Hillenmeyer, 2005).
Both the papers show total control of the errors. The researchers try as much as possible to match the variables in question in order to support the set hypothesis. The samples are taken in a way that they are accurately representative of the population under study.
As mentioned earlier, when the null hypothesis is true and the research carried out or the statistical test involving data mean rejects the hypothesis, this results into Type1 error. The probability of making this type of...