The brain has various structures that bilingualism can effect, such as the cognitive and neurological systems (Marian , and Shook). A child’s cognitive abilities greatly outnumber monolingual children if he or she is bilingual because there is a strong relationship between the level of cognitive development in education and bilingual children. Children who are bilingual or multilingual have a greater cognitive flexibility rather than monolinguals. They have increased intellectual growth and their mental development is attained quicker than that of monolinguals. (Marian et al.). Researchers have completed innumerable studies exploring how bilingualism relates to the different systems of the brain. In 1986, Bialystok did a study on Finnish immigrants attending college in Sweden. The study compared the students academic abilities to their Finnish dexterity. The tests were those of cognitive and academic competence such as use of vocabulary, and how well synonyms and antonyms were used in both languages. Those students who attended school in Finland before immigration, reached equal levels of achievement compared to the Swedish students. (Marian et. al). Other studies have also been completed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These examinations consist of recognizing which areas of the brain are active when a multiple language speaker is asked to use both or all languages concurrently. A boost in brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is observed when the bilingual person alternates between the two languages. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain responsible for a person's attention span, and his or her inhibition. Along with the DLPFC, other parts of the brain are also activated that have control over cognition (Marian , and Shook).The part of the brain that deals with the sensory processing is also activated when a child begins to learn a second language and use both of them simultaneously (Crosby, and Prescod). The neural parts of the brain are not the only thing affected by a second language. The brain’s anatomy also has changes made by bilingualism. The brain is made up of gray areas, which shows the amount of information stored . A child that learns a second language earlier, and understands it exceptionally well has greater amounts of gray in the brain (Marian , and Shook). Overall bilingualism has conclusive effect on multiple abilities such as:
•initial speech assimilation
•recognition of grammatical errors
•detection of puzzles (Crosby, and Prescod).
A second benefit of being bilingual deals with the social-emotional effects.
~Sub-topic for topic #1.
Being bilingual also opens multiple doors to global opportunities. Bilingualism is becoming something that around ⅓ of the world’s population has embraced. Besides
all of the cognitive benefits bilingualism provides, it...