By the beginning of 21st century, public health activities over different settings led to growth in healthcare. Improvement in large number of diseases, injuries, infectious diseases, nutrition, sanitation, cancers, & dental health have led to significant growth in Australia’s health population since last 30 years. Improvements grew from advances and technology in medicine and surgery, delivery of quality health care services, and also range of public health programs & promotion via an organized approach (NHMRC, Dec 1996, p.7). When we talk about developing and implementing population based interventions & strategies, Australia is one of the leading nations of the world which adds up to health of Australians. One must understand how these successes have happened and know the factors causing it. This review brings together information and data from different sources to describe two of Australia’s major successes in health outcome.
These are: A) Smoking and Tobacco Control
B) Road Traffic Safety
Australia ranks highly among nations in efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco caused deaths and disease (WHO, 1997).This is to not ignore the fact that many Australian’s (Indigenous group) are still to quit smoking and enjoy a healthy life. Taking action now should be the priority as we already know how the impact could be. One of the major causes of stroke, different kinds of cancers, heart disease and many other respiratory diseases are caused by smoking tobacco, recognized universally. Changes in the environment where individuals work and live, access to health care and improved knowledge about smoking and its effect on health played a significant role in contributing to decline in the prevalence of smoking over the past 30 years. Till today, success in tobacco control has not come through clinical or workplace interventions but via whole of population approach that has changed cultural values about smoking. The first Government to adopt a Smoke free policy was The Commonwealth Department of Health. In Australia, smoking is restricted, if not banned in all public places and settings [hospitals, malls, schools, flights, taxis, restaurants]. Introduction of smoke free policies and environments have significantly changed the community views and attitudes in recent years. ‘’ In Australia, the death rate from road traffic crashes declined from a peak of 30.4% in 1970 to 11.1% in 1994. This decline has been achieved despite the fact that the amount of road
travel has almost doubled in this time’’ (Wheatly, 1995, p.15). Australia’s fatality rate per unit population is one amongst the lowest in the world. This reduction in road fatalities is evident by reductions in hospital admissions due to road injuries. Mass media and public education initiatives have played an important role in...