Response to Intervention
Response to Intervention (RtI) is a framework based off the problem solving method that integrates assessment, and targeted instruction, within a multi-tiered intervention system. Implementation of RtI in schools is crucial to identify which students need additional intervention that will help increase their literacy skills, and prevent them from falling behind. RtI is based off multi-leveled tiers that are each categorized by the intensity of the intervention that is being used. The RtI framework is also used as a valued tool in monitoring and improving student behavior in the classroom through a model known as Positive Behavioral Intervention Support (PBIS).
RtI was designed to provide early intervention to students that are experiencing difficulties in developing literacy skills. Throughout RtI, assessment data is collected to monitor student progress, and is used to determine if the intervention should be continued or modified (Smetana 2010). A common consensus is that the RtI framework consists of three tiers: Tier I, Tier II, and Tier III. In Tier I, primary interventions are used that differentiate instruction, routines, and accommodations to the students that need little to no interventions. The students in this tier are often times classified with the color green.
In Tier II, secondary interventions are used to help the students that are not making adequate progress towards developing appropriate literacy skills, despite the Tier I interventions (Smetana 2010). These students are classified with the color yellow, and are given more intense interventions that are targeted to their need. These interventions help determine if the student can eventually go back down to green, or if they need more high intensity interventions they are then classified with the color red.
‘Red’ students are in Tier III, a tertiary intervention stage where they will receive high intensity interventions to assess their literacy skills. If the appropriate progress is not made by a student in Tier III in a timely matter, the next step would be to test the student for any learning disabilities that are hindering their literacy skills.
RtI works at its best when personal from across the school, including administrators, general education teachers, special education teachers, supplemental specialists, music and gym teachers, and counselors all collaborate to support the framework, because each staff member shares equal responsibility for the success and failure of all students (Shapiro 2011). RtI needs the full support of all staff members, because it does not show immediate results and could take between 3-5 years to see its positive impact. RtI gives schools the chance to correct literacy issues, and fix the problem early, before students’ progress forward where they pay for it long into their future.
RtI also helps implement behavioral interventions in the classroom through a similar process called Positive...