Answers Essay

1029 words - 5 pages

1. Other criteria that should be considered for determining species replacement are: tree physiology such as growth, seed dispersal and maturity. Ecological features should be considered. Feathers such as soil type, drainage, seedbed type, and nutrients. Successional stage of the current forest should also be considered as well. Tree physiology is important to determine what species would replacement. Characteristics that allow tree species to grow fast and tall, allow for the species to be shade intolerant (Bruns and Honkala, 1990, OMNR, 1998; OMNR, 2000; Homes, 2006; Matonis et al, 2011). This characteristic is found in many pioneer species such as: Fraxinus americana, Betula papyrifera Populus tremuloides, Populus balsamifera, Populus grandidentata, all which can be found in the South Drumlin Nature area. Also, the physiology of shade tolerant trees are also as important as shade tolerant species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Tusga canadensis and Ostrya virginiana are facilitators species (Bruns and Honkala, 1990, OMNR, 1998; OMNR, 2000). These species are able to facilitate the environment around them to be suitable for their own species. A study by Woods (1984) found that the canopies of some species are able to influence the area around it. Canopies from species such as Tusga canadensis and Tilia americana discriminate against other species, while the canopy from Acer saccharum favours Fagus grandifolia (Woods, 1984). Matonis et al (2011) suggest that there are multiply variations that influence gap regeneration and that great light availability would be most suitable for species such as Fraxinus americana ; Populus balsamifera, Populus grandidenta and Butula papyrifera.
Many other studies (Poulson and Plati, 1994; Runkle, 1981; Brewer and Merritt, 1978) show that, in an Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia dominated forest, which the replacement species are also of these two species. However, using data from another course (Management of Forest Ecosystems 3200Y) of the sample nature area, no Acer saccharum or Fagus grandifolia were found in the seedling, super seedling and sapling layer (Liang, 2014). Instead of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana and Ostrya virginiana were found to be the most abundant in those layers (Liang, 2014). Ostrya virginiana was found to be most abundant due its physiology, it reproduces aggressively when there is a sudden abundant of light (Bruns and Honkala, 1990; OMNR, 2000). In addition, the abundant of Ostrya virginiana is due to past grazing as it is known that the South Drumlin Nature Area was once used as a grazing field (Jones et al, 2002).
The other criteria that should be explored is the ecological feature of the site. History of the site is important as past disturbances and activities can influence the present forest stand. Past disturbances such as grazing can affect the regeneration, thus has a direct influence on the current forest stand. Grazing from cattle can...

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