Summary of Proposal
The main objective of the botanical gardens today is the conservation of biological diversity ex situ, allowing for the potential loss of this because of the destruction of the environment. However, in the past the main activity of the botanical gardens was the buildup and maintenance of diversity that explorers brought back from unexplored regions, near and far, in order to make them available to growers that they would explore the potential that plants collected. Much of ornamental crops are now widely grown were developed in this way, including palms and hedges, and some flowers such as roses and orchids. There is always the risk of biodiversity loss and this in turn would deprive us of finding its possible application for the benefit of mankind, however, the work of botanic gardens is essential for conservation and to develop the process of domestication some plants that would otherwise have gone unnoticed.
Currently it is estimated that the diversity of plants in the world exceeds 250 000 species, of which only 7000 are cultivated by humans as food, fiber, medicine, forage, with a greater or lesser degree of domestication, excluding ornamental plants, which could reach more than 28,000 cultivated species, although their number continues to increase (Khoshbakht and Hammer, 2008). Of these crops, the most important are cereals and their domestication took place several thousand years ago and probably some ornamental species that accompanied them became part of the crops that the first cloned human populations with aesthetic concerns (Heywood , 2002).
From the great diversity cultivated by humans, 6.5 million varieties have been preserved over 1,400 ex situ conservation systems, but these accessions less than 1% are Ornamentals (Chin & Tay, 2007), preserved in 95 institutions, of which only 13 botanical gardens with clearly stated purposes for this type of plants (Engels, 2007). However, in some cases, as in the Botanic Gardens, Kew, interest is in preserving as many species as possible, without taking into account the broad scope of diversity within a genus or species, so not all variation is maintained (Tay, 2007), although the future survival of some species and their potential use might be compromised by the lack of genetic diversity preserved. This could be due to lack of resources and space for their proper maintenance. All botanical garden should be in short, worry so much about conserving as many species as possible, but at the same time to maintain multiple accessions of various origins to preserve genetic diversity within species home. This makes it much more feasible to use genetic material preserved for the development of new crops or provide new variation to the existing ones. However, it is not always possible to make this work, so in many cases the cultivated varieties have a very narrow gene pool. In addition, one of the main factors affecting the growth of the collections and the...