This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Effects Of Progeria On Immune System

1993 words - 8 pages

Attack of Progerin:
“Lamins are intermediate filament proteins forming a network in the inner nuclear membrane” ( They are essential to the body, "maintaining the structural integrity of the nucleus" and have a hand in chromatin organization, DNA replication/transcription, and RNA processing ( A common malfunction that occurs in HGPS patients is a heterozygous single cytosine to thymine point mutation in exon 11 at position 1824 of the coding sequence. Although there is no amino acid change, such mutation "generates a cryptic splice site, resulting in a transcript 150 base pairs shorter than normal and 50 fewer amino acids translated" within the prelamin A protein ( The underlying problem of this mutation is that necessary zinc metalloprotease (Zmpste24) cleavage sites are present in the 50 amino acids that were not translated. The Zmpste24 protein is an integral component of prelamin A maturation; it cuts immature prelamin A at two particular sites. The Zmpste24 gene in return provides instructions for making a protein that acts as a protease (an enzyme that cuts (cleaves) other proteins). Thus, farnesylated prelamin A anchors to the nuclear envelope. Failure to cleave the prelamin A results in the formation and accumulation of "smaller farnesylated and carboxy-methylated mutant prelamin A protein," also known as progerin, in the nuclear envelope ( The hydrophobic farnesyl chain gives progerin a higher affinity for the inner nuclear membrane, which redistributes progerin away from nucleoplasmic foci; this association deforms the membrane. The integrity of the nucleus is ultimately disrupted, resulting in nuclei that appear "larger, distorted, blebbed, and have a thicker nuclear lamina" ( "The mechanical properties of the nuclear lamina in HGPS cells are compromised. The nuclei are stiffer, have reduced deformability, and do not respond to mechanical force in the same manner as normal cells" ( Cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression are therefore altered in HGPS cells. These deficiencies in the basic cellular processes affect surrounding tissues such as the skin, bone, and cardiovascular tissues (

Normal Process of Lamin A Maturation:
Normally, the lamin A mRNA is translated to prelamin A and becomes farnesylated. As a result, the farnesylated prelaim A anchors to the inner nuclear membrane and is cleaved by Zmpste24, which produces mature lamin A.

Damages Inflicted on Genome Replication:
During interphase, there is a loss of heterochomatin and nucleoplasmic lamin A foci. The nucleoplasmic foci contain replicative proteins (PCNA and polymerase), which are critical for ordered initiation of genome replication in early S phase (impactaging). DNA replication occurs during the S phase, the phase of DNA synthesis. During the S phase, a "checkpoint" is triggered when problems with DNA replication are encountered. Checkpoints serve as...

Find Another Essay On effects of progeria on immune system

Deleterious Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Thymic and Splenic Immune Functions

2714 words - 11 pages and Kraal 2005; Onkar and Govardhan, 2013). The spleen contains both B and T lymphocytes. Immunotoxicity of xenobiotics or their metabolites on lymphocytes populations may be represented in the spleen. Thus, the spleen is considered one of the recommended organs to evaluate enhanced histopathology of the immune system (Elmore, 2006). So, the objectives of this study were to explore the immunomodulatory changes induced by MSG administration on the

Raising the Awareness of the Psychological Immune System

650 words - 3 pages response heavily depends on what kind of action is made. It is mentioned in Gilbert’s essay that individuals adjust to coping with significant matters because of the fact that the psychological immune system allows it, though the suggestion of how to handle minor problems is never presented. While taking into account the different factors that trigger an individual’s psychological immune system, Gilbert introduces the fact that “a defensive system

The Latest Advances In Drug Manipulations Of The Immune System

3734 words - 15 pages more effective system (Downie et. al., 1995). ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY The adaptive immune system is split into two mechanisms: humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. A basic understanding of these concepts is necessary for the purpose of understanding the specific effects of different immunopharmacological agents. HUMORAL IMMUNITY Humoral or antibody-mediated immunity is associated with B-lymphocyte cells. Antigens are foreign molecules that

What are the Effects of Smoking on the Respiratory System?

1203 words - 5 pages What are the Effects of Smoking on the Respiratory System? When a cigarette is lit, over 7,000 chemicals are released; however, several hundred are toxic. Why would an individual consume a toxic waste bomb? Smoking is dangerous and it does damage too many areas of the human body. This occurrence takes place first within the respiratory system. This toxic fume enters the lungs causing severe damage from the beginning. The long-term effect

The Effects of Malpractice Suits on the Healthcare System

1079 words - 4 pages on court awards. The increases in malpractice suits have affected the health care system because of the hansom damage awards paid out by the physicians, which causes the rate of medical malpractice insurance to increase. In this case, malpractice refers to Negligence or misconduct by a health care worker such as a physician. The failure to meet a standard of care or standard of conduct that is recognized by this profession reaches the level of

Coevolution of Bacterial Gut Microbiota and the Human Adaptive Immune System

1185 words - 5 pages antigen it has encountered previously (Boehm 2012). Only when innate immunity is compromised do intestinal bacteria produce chemical signals from macrophages to stimulate an adaptive, or acquired, immune response. This is important in fighting off unwelcome pathogens (Hooper et al. 2010). Human Microbiota Establishment Several important effects of the microbiota on the human immune system have been observed by studies using the selective

Effects of Creatine Monohydrate to Human System

869 words - 4 pages which is barely anything compared to all other supplements on the market. People of any social class can use the supplement in their workout. (Creatine Pros & Cons, 2013) Creatine is also perceived greatly as a terrible thing. Ranging from illness to long-term mental effects many things are said creatine is bad for. Short-term and long-term and argued greatly, but what it really comes down to is this compound is definitely something to be

The Effects of the Indian Caste System

1120 words - 4 pages , “the first man created, Purusa, is sacrificed in order to give rise to the four varnas. The Brahmin was his mouth, his two arms were made the Rajanya [Kshatriya, king and warrior], his two thighs [loins] the Vaishya, from his feet the Sudra [servile class] was born” (History of the Caste System in India). Although the Vedas has only spoken of four classes, the Indian culture has adapted one on its own. This class is called the untouchables. The

Tuberculosis and Its Effects on the Body System

1362 words - 5 pages Disease/Condition and its Effect on the Body System Tuberculosis is a disease caused by the bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria primarily attack the lungs but the infection can spread to other body parts such as the kidneys, spine, and brain. Symptoms of tuberculosis are cough (possibly with blood and mucus), fatigue, and shortness of breath, fever, and pain in the chest. If the infection is not treated the bacteria can

The Structure of the ANS System and the Effects it Has Shown to Have on Physiological and Behavioral Functions

709 words - 3 pages The Structure of the ANS System and the Effects it Has Shown to Have on Physiological and Behavioral Functions The ANS is a purely motor system, meaning that it transmits impulses out of the CNS to various motor or effect or organs of the body. These include the smooth muscle of the blood vessels and the gastro intestinal system, heart muscle, and several glands such as the pancreas, the adrenal medulla and the salivary glands. The ANS

Effects of Alcohol on Nutrition

574 words - 2 pages Effects of Alcohol on Nutrition There are many affects alcohol has on nutrition, in people of all ages. Each year more than 100,000 people die from alcohol related causes. According to the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug dependence more than 13 million Americans abuse alcohol. There are different types of alcohol dependency psychologically dependent and physically dependent. If you crave alcohol, or feel distresses without it you

Similar Essays

Effects Of Progeria On Immune System

762 words - 4 pages and, subsequently, DNA DSBs. The binding of XPA to the stalled forks excludes normal binding by repair proteins, leading to DSB accumulation, which actives ATM and ATR checkpoints, and arresting cell-cycle progression. As mutant lamin proteins takeover the immune system, they sequester replication and repair factors, leading to "stalled replication forks, which collapse into DNA double-strand beaks (DSBs)." These DSBs bind to Xeroderma

Overview Of The Immune System Essay

1084 words - 4 pages they are larger and live longer. Also macrophages have capacity to activate other immune system organs. The dendritic cells are eater cells which have ability to filter body fluids and activate immune system organs like macrophages. Specific immune system’s cells are called T cells and B cells. They have receptors on their surface which each of them match only one antigen. These receptors can only bind to specific guidances, Main

The Response To Stress And The Effect Of Stress On The Immune System

2083 words - 8 pages suppress or damage T cells, B cells and NK cells (Butcher & Lord, 2004). Several researchers explored the causal relationship between stress, hormonal changes, and immune system response. In a study of effects of repeated stress on T cell numbers and function in rats (Batuman et al., 1990), researchers observed that significant decreases in the total number of mononuclear cells, particularly suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) T cells in the spleen and

The Functions Of The Immune System

1122 words - 4 pages interactions (cytokines) to the rest of the system. Our bodies will then provide the best possible way to fight of the infection, the B cells then help by producing antibodies. Antibodies, attach themselves to the antigens on the germs surface and creates a signal to our body to produce toxic substances that attract killer white blood cells known as phagocytes. These cells will then absorb the pathogen killing it off. 6. Describe at least one immune