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Effects On Honey Bees Research Paper

1678 words - 7 pages

Effects on BeesSonya J. PradoSacramento State UniversityApril 14, 2014Honey bees play a critical role in agriculture. The study of the honey bee has shown the true complexity and efficiency of their colony. Each member works together in a nearly flawless environment of productivity. Honey bees are studied extensively to study other aspects of biology because their genetics can be easily controlled. An analysis of three research articles on effects on honey bees will identify what, how, when, and why it was done and who it was done by.An experiment by Barron et al. (2009) was done on honey bees by treating them with freebase cocaine, OA hydrochloride or mianserin hydrochloride by applying the compounds dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) to the dorsal thorax of forager bees using a glass of micro capillary while they fed at sucrose or pollen feeders.The first experiment tested the effects of cocaine and mianserin hydrochloride treatment on dance behavior. The observation was done by using colonies of about 8,000 bees housed in a glass-walled observation hive. Their round dances were video recorded during a 50 minutes period after individually paint-marked foragers were trained to a 1.5moll-1 sucrose feeder 10m from hive. Dance observation began 20 minutes after treatment. During the observation period, the number of visits by each bee to the feeder was also recorded. Videos were later analyzed to score how many feeder visits caused dances on return to the hive and the rate of dancing- number of dance circuits per minute. To test whether cocaine influenced dance behavior by affecting biogenic amine signaling, the authors examined whether mianserin treatment could reduce the effects of cocaine on dance behavior.The second experiment tested the effect of cocaine on loco motor behavior. Forager bees were caught at a sucrose feeder and chilled briefly to immobility by about 2 minute exposure to-20 degrees Celsius in a domestic freezer. Bees were placed individually in a 9 cm-diameter Petri dishes. Each dish was placed over a simple radial grid and Barron et al. (2009) recorded the number of times the bee walked across a line in the grid during a 5 minute observation period. Each bee was observed twice at 30 and 60 minute post-treatment.The last experiment tested the effect of cocaine on sucrose responsiveness. Barron et al. 2009 studied the effect of cocaine treatment on responsiveness to sucrose using the PER assay. Bees were harnessed in metal tubes following previously published methods and starved for 4 hours. Water was presented to bees between each sucrose presentation. The first concentration eliciting proboscis extension was the sucrose sensitivity index. An index of 1 meant a bee responded to 0.1% sucrose, while 7 meant a bee responded to honey only. Bees that responded to water more than twice were judged to have sensitized to antennal stimulation and were excluded from analyses comparing sucrose responsiveness across experimental groups....

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