Metabolomics is the ‘omics’ science of metabolism and its definition is in analogy with other part of biological science genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. The metabolome or study of metabolites covers all the compounds formed in a biological system, from an organelle to a whole organism. Also, metabolome can be explained as the entire set of small molecules (non-polymeric compounds with a molecular weight less than ~1000Da) that are found in general metabolic reactions as byproduct and that are biosynthesized by a vital system like cell, tissue or organism. (Harrigan GG. 2003).
Metabolites are undergone by dynamic changes because they are sensitive to genetic or environmental changes. It is just one part of system biology that could be most useful because it allow us to observe the status of cellular. On the other hand, metabolites are a direct and whole picture of the inside the cell and vital mechanism and pathway.
Among all creatures, it is anticipated that there are about 100,000 compounds with a molecular weight lower than 1000 Da produced in different types of life. The metabolites are estimated to be about 3000 compounds in the human species. While, the numbers of genes are around 30,000, the number of transcripts is about 100,000 and it is estimated that there are up to 1,000,000 different proteins. With respect to limited number of the metabolome in comparison with other field of biological system, metabolomics provides data that are less complex and more quantitative than genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics.
Metabolites have variety and are physically and chemically different, including salts, sugars, lipids, acids, bases, hormonal steroids, and other compounds. This variety of metabolites and their dynamic characterizations in biological samples complicates the detection methods and it is nearly impossible to identify all various compounds in a single method and experiment. Nevertheless, advances methods in separation (chromatography and electrophoresis) and spectroscopy (NMR and MS), are common methods to measure of metabolites in biological samples at low concentration levels.
On the other hand, in biological study that it may not be necessary to detect and identify all metabolites in a metabolome if the given data profiles of two groups of samples are different as much to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects.
An accurate, precise and well- defined proﬁle of the metabolites will lead to a better understanding of the biological system in an organism. It can potentially used the metabolites as biomarkers for various purposes, including diagnostics, prognosis and prediction of diseases, drug industry, and environmental studies.
It is important that biofluids (urine, plasma, serum) as source of metabolites are commonly easier to collect than tissue samples or biopsies, and whereas decrease the time of studies of changes in metabolic pathways within organisms. So the given data by study on...