The development of modern nationalism in Europe, according to Gellner, went through five stages. First stage, was during the time of Vienna congress from 1814 to 1815, the principles of nationality, although could be attained, but it was not recognized. The congress was established to prevent chaos and to ensure peace by resolving the conflicts that resulted from the Napoleonic wars and redraw the borders to balance the power share in the continent, but it was ineffective. It was able, however, to reestablish traditional dynastic units and to enlarge them. Nonetheless, the rulers and kings of Europe sought refuge in Vienna to reconstruct Europe after two decades of revolution and war, but the congress failed, and Europe descended into chaos of nationalist movements up to World War I (Jarrett, 2013).
Second stage, was during the phase of irredentism to the end of 1918. Throughout this stage the doctrines of nationalism were popular and they were embraced. The second phase covers the period of irredentism until the end of 1918. During this period, people already considered nationalism natural and righteous, but it still failed to be materialized politically. During this period, as Anderson stated, that it is marked by an unprecedented appeal towards nationalism both by the public and the politicians. According to Anderson, nationalism was flavored with a sense of an awakening for sentiments related to language, where the meaning of nation was to be appropriated with that of languages in Europe (Anderson, 2006).
The dominant of language politics was in its peak in the 19th century, as publications and dictionaries were used as national markers and symbols of distinctiveness and inclusiveness, which lead to the steady drift of printed languages from each other, universities and colleges standardization of knowledge, and formation of nationalism. These emerging nationalism were popular, and they were needed to break the shackles of the past, and educate the masses, and introduce political reforms (Anderson, 2006).
As a reaction to the popular nationalisms in the 19th century, the dynastic monarchies sought their own version of official nationalism to counter the popular version and to protect their thrones. The concept of nationalism went through a gradual evolution due to industrialization, to be stripped of its ethnic, geographic and linguistic characteristics. In addition to the increasing population movements, modern education has played a significant role. History was rewritten to match the interests of the prevalent nationalism. The right of self-determination was one of the most frequent political lexicons in the period 1880-1914, however it was not applied in “Europe, and the allied powers were accused of practicing double standards” (Raic, 2002, p. 192). The nationalistic sentiments were on the raise, among the multiethnic empires, but also the national states. The primordial forms of nationalism, Zionism, anti-Semitism, folk nationalism,...