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Review Of The Objective Of Norm In American

952 words - 4 pages

The objective of norm in American, by Michael Schudson, explores how and why the objective norms developed in American journalism. Objective is one of the most important occupational values of American journalism, it can be identified by following measures: express allegiance, ethnographers’ observations and occupational routines, resist with the challenging behaviour, impersonality and non-partisanship in news content. Differencing from some scholars’ opinions that economic and technological change enhances the ethic of objective, Schudson thinks four conditions encourage the articulation of norms. Two of them are Durkheimian, the other two are Weberian. One of the Durkheimian conditions thinks the emergence of norm is to achieve horizontal solidarity, another Durkheimian condition find the norm is used to identify the group from other groups. Both Durkheimian conditions are concluded as social cohesion. The Weberian conditions find norm is not appear abruptly, they are transfer from the old generation, who were benefit from these rules, to the young generation. It is the tool for the superiors to control subordinates in a complex organization. Weberian condition is to satisfy the need of social control. By discussing the history of American journalism development, this essay outlining the emergence of these four conditions in the late 19th and early 20th century. By doing so, the author found the reason why a new moral norm appeared in American journalism. Compared with European journalism, this article discusses why objectivity as a norm first and most fully appears in American instead of Europe.
The author provides a rough timeline of the objective norm emerging in American journalism, and explains the inner origin of these conditions. This journal article conveniently consists of seven parts of academic enquiry. In the introduction part of this article (p.149-153), the meaning of objective and norm is stated. Schudson review the previous opinion about economic and technological explanations, and argues these opinions ignore the booster that causes the norm to be articulated. The Durkheimian and Weberian conditions are presented. Both of them can cause articulate moral norms.
The second part to the forth part (p.153-158) separately discusses three periods of American journalism: colonial period, the early 19 century, the late 19century and the early 20 century. In these three periods, objective was emerged in different form. Such as the business neutrality in colonial American journalism, the stenographic fairness phenomena in 19th century American journalism and occupational journalism culture in the late 19th century and early 20th century. These phenomenons are more or less belonging to objective practice. They can be regard as the objective soil of American journalism. However, these objective practices still did not develop into the objective norm. After such long period development, the American journalism stepping into fact-centered...

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