Review Mechanism By Which Endothelial Cells Contribute Inflammation In Key Diseases

988 words - 4 pages

Endothelial cells are originated from embryonic mesoderm. It is a thin layer of cells found in the body like in the blood vessels, heart and coverings of organs. It regulates permeability of blood flow all around the body and maintain vascular homeostasis. If the body is not well taken care of due to stressful lifestyle and not taking proper meals, endothelial cells can be inflamed and damaged leading to key disease such as artherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease and Alzheimer's disease.
Atherosclerosis is a lipid storage disease where too much of lipid is deposited in endothelial of arteries causing narrowing to prevent blood to flow. It is triggered by daily diet of ...view middle of the document...

The oxidation and inflammatory factor develops the plaque and the plaque ruptures forming a blood clot in the arteries. Experimental evidence suggests numerous mechanisms through which leukocytes may affect the stability of plaques in acute coronary syndromes. (Tousoulis D., Charakida M. & Stefandis C.) Inflammatory markers contributing to coronary heart disease are myeloperoxidase, C reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor. Myeloperoxidase, leukocyte enzyme, causes vasocontriction in arteries that takes up nitric oxide, contributes in plaque formation and producing oxidised lipids. The increased level of C reactive protein are believed to induce more inflammation in the endothelium cells and allowing plaque formation to increase in size thus leading to high possibility of stroke. Serum amyloid A protein, IL-6 and IL-1 contribute to the plaque formation in endothelial cells.
Hyperglycaemia causes inflammation development in the endothelial cells. High levels of inflamed markers which causes chronic systemic inflammation. Nitric oxide production prevents leukocytes to adhere to the endothelial cells. Oxidative stress is known for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) whereby antioxidants function in body can no longer remove. ROS degrade nitric oxide and alters to produce a highly oxidative substances. The activation of protein kinase C activates vascular NADPH oxidase. Vascular NADPH and oxidative stress induces damage in endothelial cells. In a healthy person , polyol and hexosamine pathways do not associate with glucose. Hyperglycaemia allows shunting of glucose in polyol and hexosamine pathway resulting an increased in activating protein kinase C. Continuous exposure to hyperglycaemia leads to the alteration of the erythrocytes in advanced glycation end products. The altered erythrocytes bind with advanced glycation receptors to increase adherence and deteriorate the condition.
In ischemic acute renal failure, the increase of endothelial permeability in parcelluar and transcellular contributes to ischemic injury. Interstitial edema compress vascular peritubular capillaries to reduce the blood flow in the medulla. The imbalance of plasma leaked from endothelial cells leads to stasis and affect...

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