Review Mechanism By Which Endothelial Cells Contribute Inflammation In Key Diseases

988 words - 4 pages

Endothelial cells are originated from embryonic mesoderm. It is a thin layer of cells found in the body like in the blood vessels, heart and coverings of organs. It regulates permeability of blood flow all around the body and maintain vascular homeostasis. If the body is not well taken care of due to stressful lifestyle and not taking proper meals, endothelial cells can be inflamed and damaged leading to key disease such as artherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease and Alzheimer's disease.
Atherosclerosis is a lipid storage disease where too much of lipid is deposited in endothelial of arteries causing narrowing to prevent blood to flow. It is triggered by daily diet of ...view middle of the document...

The oxidation and inflammatory factor develops the plaque and the plaque ruptures forming a blood clot in the arteries. Experimental evidence suggests numerous mechanisms through which leukocytes may affect the stability of plaques in acute coronary syndromes. (Tousoulis D., Charakida M. & Stefandis C.) Inflammatory markers contributing to coronary heart disease are myeloperoxidase, C reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor. Myeloperoxidase, leukocyte enzyme, causes vasocontriction in arteries that takes up nitric oxide, contributes in plaque formation and producing oxidised lipids. The increased level of C reactive protein are believed to induce more inflammation in the endothelium cells and allowing plaque formation to increase in size thus leading to high possibility of stroke. Serum amyloid A protein, IL-6 and IL-1 contribute to the plaque formation in endothelial cells.
Hyperglycaemia causes inflammation development in the endothelial cells. High levels of inflamed markers which causes chronic systemic inflammation. Nitric oxide production prevents leukocytes to adhere to the endothelial cells. Oxidative stress is known for accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) whereby antioxidants function in body can no longer remove. ROS degrade nitric oxide and alters to produce a highly oxidative substances. The activation of protein kinase C activates vascular NADPH oxidase. Vascular NADPH and oxidative stress induces damage in endothelial cells. In a healthy person , polyol and hexosamine pathways do not associate with glucose. Hyperglycaemia allows shunting of glucose in polyol and hexosamine pathway resulting an increased in activating protein kinase C. Continuous exposure to hyperglycaemia leads to the alteration of the erythrocytes in advanced glycation end products. The altered erythrocytes bind with advanced glycation receptors to increase adherence and deteriorate the condition.
In ischemic acute renal failure, the increase of endothelial permeability in parcelluar and transcellular contributes to ischemic injury. Interstitial edema compress vascular peritubular capillaries to reduce the blood flow in the medulla. The imbalance of plasma leaked from endothelial cells leads to stasis and affect...

Find Another Essay On review mechanism by which endothelial cells contribute inflammation in key diseases

Should we use Stem Cells in Order to Cure Other Diseases?

982 words - 4 pages There have been many types of medical advances, but one in particular that has been said that it can help on the treatment of different type of diseases. Stem cells are multicellular organisms that can develop many more of their kind and then give birth to new kind of cells. This types of cells come from the umbilical cord of a new born. This became a huge dilemma where there’s a competing with moral and ethical values. The rumor is a never

Review of Research Paper on RNA in Mammalian Cells

1142 words - 5 pages Review of Research Paper: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells Overview The significance of this experiment is that it shows how siRNA suppresses the expression of genes in different mammalian cells. It was known previous to the experiment that dsRNA can trigger apoptosis in cells- this is an automatic defense mechanism that mammalian cells use to protect against the dsRNA possessed by viruses

Ways in which Lifelong Learning can Contribute towards the New Global Culture and New Knowledge Society

1421 words - 6 pages Introduction: In this essay, ways in which lifelong learning can contribute towards the new global culture and new knowledge society, facts about lifelong learning and how the educator deals with the learners will be discussed. What is learning? Learning is defined as obtaining a new ability or knowledge. For example: leaning to ride a bike, learning to walk, learning a new language, and so on. What is lifelong learning? According to the

"1984" by George Orwell Assignment: Explore a novel in which the major themes are developed in the first chapter and explain how these themes contribute to the work as a whole

546 words - 2 pages In his novel, 1984, George Orwell sets the scene in the first chapter by establishing the atmosphere that illustrates the oppression of an omnipotent government. The setting that is created in the first chapter displays the domination of the government over the masses of Oceana and the description of the party itself illustrates the power that a government may obtain through manipulation. The culmination of the themes in the first chapter proves

DEFENSE MECHANISM OF BARTEBLY’S PERSONALITY IN SHORT STORY BARTLEBY THE SCRIVENER BY HERMAN MELVILLE

3251 words - 13 pages painful or a pleasant experience (Lois Tyson 2006:16).The type of defense mechanism that I will use is regression and avoidance.RegressionWhen confronted by stressful events, people sometimes abandon coping strategies and revert to patterns of behavior used earlier in development. This defense mechanism is called as regression, suggesting that people act out behaviors from the stage of psychosexual development in which they are fixated. For example

Title : To Understand the Situation In Which Package Based Software Can Contribute To Greater Efficiency and effectiveness

1606 words - 6 pages they can contribute to greater effectiveness and efficiency in a business.A word processor such as Microsoft Word and Word Perfect also has a number of ancillary programs, which can be used in conjunction with word processing documents to enhance standard facilities. Which is said by French 1996 .An example of such an ancillary program is Mail Merge. The mail merge facility can bring great benefits to small business environment.This facility

"Changes In The Land" By Cronon Review

836 words - 3 pages Changes in The Land Review Jesse Mura-PelkeyProf. David Deacon 9/28/14"Changes in the Land" by William Cronon offers countless intimate observations and gatherings regarding the ecology of New England and the encounters between the colonists and the native americans. Cronon interprets and analyzes the different happenings in New England's plant and animal environments that occurred with the shift from Indian to European dominance. As the distant

How how a community's actions, or in this case, lack of action can contribute to one's madness in "A Rose for Emily" by Faulkner

1444 words - 6 pages The year is 1852, Emily Grierson has just been born into the small town of Jefferson. A town she will soon discover has distinct hierarchial differences and social classes that are to be followed by everyone in her community. However this same community and the values which it holds will eventually be a key factor in determining Miss Emily's madness. 'A Rose for Emily', tells the story of a woman who fails to live up to her high reputation and

Catcher in the Rye by JD Salinger: How do Holden?s Interactions with different Characters in New York Contribute to his Mental Breakdown?

1327 words - 5 pages How do Holden?s Interactions with different Characters in New York Contribute to his Mental Breakdown? The different characters that Holden meets in New York contribute to his mental breakdown by increasing his depression and making him think about the world too much. They make him wonder whether he wants to be an adult. People that depress him are phonies, perverts, and corrupted adults. Children, on the other hand, make Holden happy with

Discuss the key influences on employment relations. Evaluate the ways in which a business can measure the effectiveness of its employment relations program

853 words - 3 pages Changes in society and legislation can somehow contribute to the influences on employment relations. There are several key influences that create impacts on the employment relations in workplaces nowadays, and they are the social influences, legal influences, economic influences and the new organizational behavioral influences. The existence of social influences involve the increased number of people from a greater range of ethic backgrounds in

The Image of a Father in Key to My Father by Harlen Coban

675 words - 3 pages Family is a strong bond that cannot be broken. In the “Key to My Father”, by Harlen Coban, the main character developes a mental picture of his father being unhip, unfit, and does what he can to provide to his family. Marc sees his father as a hardworking man that believes family comes first, but realizes that his father is unhappy. Marc seeks for clues in which he trys to find evidence to develop emotions toward his father by being proud

Similar Essays

Early Diabetes Impairs Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function Which Not Related To Oxidative Stress Mediated Mechanism

1525 words - 7 pages 3.1.1. Diabetic mice display lower BM-KSL Cells Diabetic mice were used after as early of 4 weeks induction, which determined by constant hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL or higher). We started our study by confirming the effect of diabetes model on functional bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC). Sufficient studies have demonstrated that diabetes caused decrease in number of endothelial progenitor cells [4,6,42,43]. Our findings

Early Diabetes Impairs Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function Which Not Related To Oxidative Stress Mediated Mechanism

1019 words - 5 pages ). The cells were then sorted for c-Kit+, Sca-1+ and Lin- (KSL) cells by FACS Aria (BD, San Jose, CA). Sorted KSL cells were incubated at 37 °C for 1 hour after sorting before using for the following experiments. 2.3. Detection of protein carbonyls as oxidative stress markers. The levels of 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) for protein carbonylation was measure as oxidative stress markers by ELISA. The proteins were extracted from the cells in

Roles Of Inflammation In Diseases Essay

1248 words - 5 pages Inflammation could be defined as a medium by which the body tissues respond to all sorts of injury (Roitt, 1997). It is a defence mechanism against infection from injuries. Physical stimuli such as change in temperature, UV radiation, or skin irritation may cause release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines that ensure the immune system provide suitable defence, chemokine that bring leukocytes to the inflammation site, eicosanoids

Endothelial Progenitor Cells: An Insight Into Their Therapeutic Role In Cardiovascular Disease & Biomarker Potential

914 words - 4 pages Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both the developed and developing world (Sen). In Australia, it affects one in six people (3.7million) and killing one Australian every 12 minutes (National Heart Foundation of Australia). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have recently been demonstrated to have increasing therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia and coronary artery disease (Werling, Thorpe