Review Of Research Paper On Creating Home Made Stem Cells

3092 words - 12 pages

Our paper discusses an important step in the research surrounding stem cells.
Pluripotent stem cells are found in the early blastocyst, and can differentiate into different cell types such as neurons, cardiac muscle, or blood cells.

As is explained elsewhere on this paper, stem cells are extremely useful and hold amazing medical potential, especially to “grow” specific cells, tissues, and even organs for patients. Controversy mires the progress of stem cell research from embryos, however, and technical problems exist along with the ethical ones. Marius Wernig and his team of scientists have had success studying a way to get around this, however.

What if, instead of taking stem cells from newly created embryos, an individual’s own cells could be used? The cells in the adult body are no longer stem cells; they aren’t pluripotent, and can only be a certain type. But with special techniques, it’s actually possible to induce these adult cells to become stem cells, with a pluripotency that allows them to develop into whatever cell type is needed!

In this experiment, induced pluripotent stem cells were created using the fibroblast cells from mice. Fibroblasts were removed from underneath the skin of the subject mice. In order to revert the cell back to a induced pluripotent state, four specially selected transcription factors (Oct 4, Sox 2, c-Myc and Klf4) were used. These four transcription factors were each incorporated into the DNA of a virus that lacked the capacity to infect, and the fibroblasts were exposed to these viruses. Just like normal viruses, these injected their DNA into the fibroblast cells, and the DNA was incorporated into the cell. Now the fibroblasts contained the new transcription factors and produced proteins that the scientists wanted to test. As hoped, these proteins caused the fibroblasts to become induced pluripotent stem cells cells.

But how did the experimenters know if the cells that they had created were truly pluripotent stem cells? What could these cells form? First, a bit of background information must be included about chimeras. In basic terms, a chimera contains two sets of DNA, both of which are expressed. Different sections of the chimera’s body will be derived from different DNA. A good example is an individual with eyes of two different colors (one green, one blue, etc). Chimeras can be formed when two fertilized eggs fuse together at an early stage, or when an unfertilized egg or extra sperm fuses with a fertilized egg. Now the developing organism contains two different genetic codes. In most cases, chimeras are completely healthy. There is no worry of immune rejection, because the cells are joined together far before any immune system exists to reject either.

Now, back to the paper. How did chimeras help the scientists identify the pluripotent stem cells they had created? The scientists obtained mouse blastocysts that had certain...

Find Another Essay On Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells

A Scientific Explanation of Stem Cells and Stem Cell Research

562 words - 2 pages cell, on the other hand, can be derived from various adult organs and differentiate into lineages restricted cells of their germ (e.g. haemopoietic stem cell and mesenchymal stem cells). Finally, the derivative of differentiated multipotent stem cell-unipotent progenitor cell. This cell is already committed to tissue specific differentiation (e.g. myeloid progenitor and lymphoid progenitor). There is also a population of cell found within a

Stem Cell Research - Genetically Unstable Stem Cells

2690 words - 11 pages ) Some couples who would otherwise have allowed their embryonic children to live -- in their own family or another -- will instead have them killed for government research. That is why the adoptive couples of some of these former "frozen embryos" have filed suit against the guidelines.(11)   The need for embryonic stem cells is questionable. Startling advances have been made in adult stem cell research and other non-embryonic avenues for

History of Stem Cells

1388 words - 6 pages with stem cells was with a mouse that had a teratoma. Most people don’t understand the need for stem cells. There are many reasons why we research stem cells. Stem cells can be collected form a wide variety of places. The studies of stem cells have been around for many years. There were many people researching stem cells during the early 1900s, but Leroy Stevens had the greatest impact on the future study of stem cells. The people of ancient

Research paper on Stem Cell Therapy.

1676 words - 7 pages Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cells are one of the most fascinating areas of biology today. But like many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises many ethical questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries. For example embryonic stem cell can be collected and later grown into

Stem Cells Research: Why or Why Not?

2051 words - 8 pages In our society, new medical technology is constantly being developed to detect, treat, and heal diseases, with many of them being successful. However, what about the diseases that have no current cure? Billions of dollars are spent on research for terminal diseases such as cancer, nervous system disorders, heart disorders, etc., yet there never seems to be a definite cure for these diseases. Undoubtedly, many people have heard of stem cells

Stem Cells Research: Revolutionizing the Medical Field

2272 words - 9 pages library of useful knowledge that continues to grow. By analyzing the human body, we have been able cure many injuries and illnesses, but not all of them. Research on stem cells is relatively new, with less than fifty years of study. Stem cells though, could be the answer in curing all disease and injury. Not all stem cells are the same, but the potential each cell has is equal to life itself. Whether it is research with embryonic or somatic stem

In Support of Stem Cells

2254 words - 9 pages variety of sources. The two main sources are embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. In recent research, scientists have created induced pluripotent stem cells from adult stem cells. The controversy surrounding stem cell research centers on which stem cells to use in experiments and future treatments. Stem cell type, source, and use will be analyzed to identify the pros and cons of stem cell research. Embryonic stem cells have a few different

The Ethics of Stem Cells

1212 words - 5 pages skin to skin contact. He was never able to experience the affection from his parent that other children got to experience. He lived in a world of his own inside his bubble. He later got sick and past on when he was only twelve years old. Embryonic stem cell could have helped save him, they could have created pancreatic cells to help him defend himself against illness like normal humans. Embryonic cells are not looked greatly upon because they

Stem Cell Research Paper

1566 words - 6 pages issue, the Catholic Church has voiced its opinion. In a statement made by its former leader, Pope John Paul II , Catholicism describes the need to recognize the devastating choices made by stem cell researchers. In his article, "Hard Cells," Hertzberg demonstrates the disdain by the Catholic Church whose past leader, Pope John Paul II, says, "Experience is already showing how a tragic coarsening of consciences accompanies the assault on innocent

Stem Cell research paper.

2365 words - 9 pages propose that the moment a sperm fertilizes an egg is when life begins and the harvesting of cells 8 days later is taking a life of a living being. On the Christian voters guide it states: Human embryos are human beings. It is grossly immoral to kill embryonic humans in order to use their bodies as medical consumables..." (Voters).President George Bush stated: "As a result of private research, more than 60 genetically diverse stem cell lines

Review of Research Paper on Parkinson's Disease Treatment

2378 words - 10 pages paper “‘Rejuvenation’ protects neurons in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease,” Chen and researchers find that older neurons in the SNc are unusually reliant on calcium channels and that after blocking these channels, the cells are “rejuvenated” and begin acting like their juvenile counterparts; as a result, these cells become protected from Parkinson’s disease. Their research, thus, points not only to a possible cause of neuronal death in PD but

Similar Essays

Stem Cells Research Paper

2088 words - 9 pages cells without actually creating a foetus (Hendricks, 2010). Researchers have already eased some issues surrounding stem cells by obtaining these cells from mice embryos without actually destroying the embryos. If this technique and its reliability are improved, it would alleviate some of the ethical concerns related to embryonic stem cell research. This study was done in Worcester, Massachusetts. Lastly, scientists reported on coming up with a new

Review Of Research Paper On Rna In Mammalian Cells

1142 words - 5 pages Review of Research Paper: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells Overview The significance of this experiment is that it shows how siRNA suppresses the expression of genes in different mammalian cells. It was known previous to the experiment that dsRNA can trigger apoptosis in cells- this is an automatic defense mechanism that mammalian cells use to protect against the dsRNA possessed by viruses

Embryonic Stem Cells Research Essay

1033 words - 4 pages Embryonic stem cells research is a very conflicting subject in the United States. Some people think that it is morally and religiously incorrect as they are killing a human life at the first stage of life. While some think it is ok because the human life to them starts at the fetus or when the fetus can feel pain. In this paper we are going to discuss the total aspect of embryonic stem cell research: how the government takes play in the study

Stem Cells Research Essay

1595 words - 6 pages eggs. The embryos donated for research purposes with informed consent of the donors. The fertilized eggs do not come from a female's body. The embryos from which human embryonic stem cells the result is typically four or five days old, and empty the microscopic ball of cells called the blastocyst. The blastocyst has three structures, the trophoblast the thickness surrounds the blastocoels empty the cavity inside the blastocyst, and the inner