This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Review Of Research Report On An Oral Inhibitor Of Hiv 1

1346 words - 5 pages

Review of the Research Report: An Orally Bioavailable, Small Molecule Antagonist of the Chemokine Receptor CCR5, is a Potent Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infection in vitro and in vivo

Background

The human body contains two type of immunity—innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity provides a specific response against the antigens of pathogens. White blood cells or lymphocytes are the main tools of adaptive immunity. There are two main types of lymphocytes; T and B cells. Pathogens have chemical signals, antigens, which the immune system recognizes. B cells have antibodies that recognize these antigens and kill the pathogens when they are still outside of a cell. T cells have receptors that are antigen specific. They are responsible for attacking pathogens that have already attacked cells. There are two types of T cells. T4 are helper cells that create proteins that grow and develop T cells and B cells. T8 cells are the “killer” cells that actually attack pathogens. T4 cells have 3 receptors on their surface, used for binding with pathogens, CD4 (the main receptor), CXCR4 (the more abundant co-receptor), CCR5 (the less abundant co-receptor).

HIV Mechanisms

Viruses are microscopic particles that act like parasitic agents. Viruses reproduce themselves by integrating into the host cell and making viral copies. A virus forms the genetic blueprint for the structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

A drawing that shows receptors on HIV

HIV is a retrovirus, which reverses the usual flow of genetic information within the host cell. This allows the virus to reproduce. HIV is both an acute, (symptoms of the disease are seen) and latent (symptoms are not seen) virus. A retrovirus takes viral RNA and transforms it into retroviral DNA. Then the viral DNA enters the host cell?s nucleus and integrates in to the host chromosome. This causes rapid genetic changes within infected people. HIV depletes the T4 cells, which are essential for immunity and antibody production. HIV enters the T4 cells through three receptors: CD4, CXCR4, CCR5.

A drawing of an HIV cell infecting a T4 cell

The infected cells, which contain viral RNA, are lined with envelope proteins that penetrate the lipid bilayer of the cell. Spikes protrude out from the envelop capsule. The spikes consist of gp141 stem and gp120 protein, which is located at the tip of the stem. The protein gp120 on the infected cells binds to the co-receptor CCR5 on the T cells. This allows the virus to become physically closer to the T cells. P24 is an antigen produced in response to HIV infection. Increased levels of P24 show increased levels of virus.

The Experiment

This study tested the ability of SCH-C to inhibit HIV infection in T4 cells. SCH-C is an antagonist, or inhibitor, of the chemokine receptor CCR5 on the T4 cells. SCH-C prevents HIV from entering the T4 cell through the CCR5 receptor. Different methods were used to determine how efficiently SCH-C...

Find Another Essay On Review of Research Report on an Oral Inhibitor of HIV-1

A research oral on the existence and nature of chamber music before 1750

1610 words - 6 pages During my many hours of research for this task, I found some very helpful resources on the subject of chamber music. Most of these books and web sites were arranged very carefully and neatly in, mainly two different ways - in periods, classical, romantic and contemporary and by composer. I found this organization very helpful and convenient but what struck me was that when the resources were listed by period, they had always seemed to skip the

Research Report on an Investigation of Impact of Naturally Mapped Interaction Techniques on User Learning and Attitudes

894 words - 4 pages Research Report on an Investigation of Impact of Naturally Mapped Interaction Techniques on User Learning and Attitudes For this research report I decided to study a journal article that explores how computer interfaces developed to simulate natural interactions impact the overall user experience, user learning, and attitudes. This research was done by Jeeyun Oh, Harold R. Robinson, and Ji Young Lee, and was published in March 2013. Hypotheses

Review of Minority Report

2208 words - 9 pages Review of Minority Report The film, Minority Report, is a science-fiction thriller, based on a short story

Review of paper 1

1653 words - 7 pages uncontrolled variables (Sanchez & Wan, 2009). Quantitative variables get numerical values. On the other hand, qualitative variables do not get numerical values, and they classify the values of the variables. Discrete variables can get only determined separated values that should be a non-negative integer, and it is possible that discrete variables have with some upper bounds. In contrast, continuous variables can get any real value between the

Critical Analysis of an Article on HIV/AIDS Prevention Issues for Women

1135 words - 5 pages Introduction: This review is about the main points, gaps and critique of the article. The main information provided in this review will help you gain new insight on women HIV/AIDS prevention issues. As a society, we focus on individualist ways of prevention. We try to enforce and educate individuals on HIV/AIDS prevention on an individual level but it’s more complex because women have a lower status compared to men, this disempowerment can lead

Oral Report Regarding identity issues of fictional world and character

1069 words - 4 pages lived. He told of his "perfect" world where all colony members are created equal, where colony members are not judged by what they are bred into but by what they can achieve, without the manacles of oppression that are shafted upon them by what our beloved geno scientists do. When I told him of the old world where this was true, and the problems and horrendous suffering that went on, "The Thinker" exploded into what seemed to be an uncontrollable

Review of Research Articles

1263 words - 5 pages opinion on the article and their own stories. This article mentions that the same consequences to alcohol addiction occur in reading excessively. First of all there is the health and social issues, and the dependency to it. After it stated ways to help someone stop such addiction. Let’s keep an open mind as we delved deeper into this unknown world. First of all, the definition of addiction is a Compulsive physiological and psychological need for a

Linear and Non-linear Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship Models on Indole Substitution Patterns as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Attachment

2221 words - 9 pages single and multiple databanks or a compilation of several previous studies [7]. In this study, we applied multiple linear regressions (MLR), genetic algorithms (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) as linear and non-linear models to investigate the QSAR in indole glyoxamide derivatives as an inhibitor of HIV-1 attachment .These models were also used to select more effective descriptors to obtain a hybrid computational model for a

Part of the Neurons affected by SSRI Inhibitor/Prozac

2000 words - 8 pages Part of the Neurons affected by SSRI Inhibitor/Prozac Pharmacological Effects SSRI selectively blocked the reuptake of 5HT through their inhibiting effects on the Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) dependant carrier in presynaptic neurons. A standard TCA such as amitriptyline, which has about an equal tendency to block neuronal reuptake of 5HT and norepinephrine, Fluoxetine in 200 times more selective in blocking the

Review of Research Paper on RNA in Mammalian Cells

1142 words - 5 pages Review of Research Paper: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells Overview The significance of this experiment is that it shows how siRNA suppresses the expression of genes in different mammalian cells. It was known previous to the experiment that dsRNA can trigger apoptosis in cells- this is an automatic defense mechanism that mammalian cells use to protect against the dsRNA possessed by viruses

Review of Research Paper on Parkinson's Disease Treatment

2378 words - 10 pages paper “‘Rejuvenation’ protects neurons in mouse models of Parkinson’s disease,” Chen and researchers find that older neurons in the SNc are unusually reliant on calcium channels and that after blocking these channels, the cells are “rejuvenated” and begin acting like their juvenile counterparts; as a result, these cells become protected from Parkinson’s disease. Their research, thus, points not only to a possible cause of neuronal death in PD but

Similar Essays

Nuclear Medicine Speech. Assessment Details: Present An Oral Report On A Subject Of Your Choice (3 10 Minutes In Length). Include Power Point Presentation

972 words - 4 pages procedures in the world. It is the semi-stable daughter nucleus of a fission product called Molybdenum-99. Molybdenum-99 is produced at Lucas Heights, near Sydney, in a nuclear reactor. Each week some of Molybdenum is taken to hospitals that have a technetium generator. This generator, often called a 'moly cow', consists of a central alumina column which the Molybdenum is chemically bonded to. It undergoes beta decay and Technetium is formed on

Illuminated Manuscripts This Was An Oral Report Describing The Significance Of The Illuminated Manuscripts

573 words - 2 pages The word illuminated manuscripts means "written and decorated or embellished works done by hand." These manuscripts were beautifully decorated, they could be as simple as just an enlarged capital letter at the beginning of a chapter or section or they could use small compositions or designs for the text called miniatures. Usually, the text of the manuscripts was written first and would leave open spaces reserved for the illuminated miniatures

Snatch: An Oral Film Review

1016 words - 4 pages black eye. I am talking about the final boxing scene; the climax of the film. In this scene, Mickey is asked to go down (get knocked out) in the fourth round of this match, or Brick Top and his cronies will kill him and his boxing promoters, Tommy and Turkish, and feed their bodies to pigs. Charming.The scene starts off with Mickey, Tommy, and Turkish entering the arena, and getting into a fight on the way. The first thing you notice is the brownish

Oxidative Stress Aspect Of Rutin On Against 4 Nitroquinoline 1 Oxide Induced Experimental Oral Carcinogenesis

2110 words - 9 pages role of rutin on 4 Nqo induced OSCC by manipulating lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant tissue defense system, tumor marker enzymes. 607,258 Materials and method: Chemicals: 4 Nitroquinoline-1-oxide and rutin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co.Ltd., banglore, india. All other chemicals were of analytical grade procured from SRL Chemicals, Mumbai, India. Animals: Healthy wistar strain albino rats, weighing 120-150 g (8 weeks old) obtained from