1. Outline suicide prevention strategies for Aboriginal youth reported on in the literature.
Background and Prevalence
According to the World Health Organization (2002), “in many legal systems, a death is certified as suicide if the circumstances are consistent with suicide and if murder, accidental death and natural causes can all be ruled out” (p. 185). Youth suicide is a growing health concern in Canada as it is the second leading cause of death in Canada (Kutcher & Szumilas, 2008, p. 282). However, even more concerning then that is the highly disproportionate rates of youth suicide between Canada’s Aboriginal populations and its non-Aboriginal populations, with Aboriginal ...view middle of the document...
Despite suicide being a prevalent concern throughout the nation, it is of even greater concern that the suicide rate among aboriginal youths is so drastically higher than that of non-aboriginal youth (Orkin et al., 2013, p. 1347). Therefore, the goal of this literature review is to explore the strategies available to prevent suicide among aboriginal youth in Canada.
What prevention strategies are available to reduce suicide in aboriginal youth (ages 8-25) within Canada? A modified version of PICOT was used to form our clinical question, where Comparison was removed due to the fact that prevention strategies weren’t being compared but were instead being gathered for use in clinical practice. PIOT was used such that P: aboriginal youth, I: suicide prevention strategies, O: to reduce aboriginal youth suicide in Canada, T: during the ages of 8 – 25 years old.
According to the Public Health Agency of Canada (2001), the Population Health Promotion Model helps to guide health care professional’s actions to improve health with three critical questions: ‘On what should we take action?’, ‘How should we take action?’ and ‘With whom should we act?’. For this literature review the model helps us to focus on Aboriginal youth suicide and the available prevention strategies. The first stage of this model is, ‘On what should we take action’, in which we looked at the full range of the health determinants that are causing the problem of Aboriginal youth suicide. In the next stage, ‘How should we take action’, we aimed to identify a wide-range of action strategies to improve the issue and bring about the necessary change. We accomplished this by conducting an extensive literature review to determine the suicide prevention strategies currently being implemented to decrease suicides among Aboriginal youths. Finally, in the last stage, ‘With whom should we act’, we determined that in order to make changes, action must be implemented at various levels within the target group. Therefore, we identified who would be most effective at implementing these prevention strategies with our Aboriginal youths. This framework is appropriate for the clinical question because the “health promotion [model] is directed at increasing a client’s level of well-being” (Nursing Planet, 2012). As we are hoping to find out which available suicide prevention interventions work the best to prevent youth aboriginal suicide, this model allows us to explore not only what interventions are available but also with why they are needed and with whom they should be implemented with.
Figure 1: Population Health Promotion Model (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2001)
Review of the Literature
A thorough review of the available literature on aboriginal suicide prevention strategies was completed, in which 16 peer-reviewed articles were gathered, reviewed and analyzed. Appendix B outlines how the articles were found, and Appendix C provides information on...