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Review Of The Objective Of Norm In American

1009 words - 5 pages

The objective of norm in American, by Michael Schudson, explores how and why the objective norms developed in American journalism. Different with some scholars’ opinion that economic and technology change enhances the ethic of objective, Schudson think four condition encourage the articulation of norms. Two conditions is regard as Durkheimian, which satisfy the need of social cohesion. The other two conditions are Weberian, which is to achieve social control. According to discussing the history of American journalism development, this essay points the emergency of these four conditions in the late 19th and early 20th century. By doing so, the author found the reason why a new moral norm appears in American journalism. Comparing with European journalism, this article discussed why objectivity as a norm first and most fully appears in American instead of Europe.
The author provides a rough timeline of the objective norm emerge in American journalism, and explained the inner origin of these conditions. This journal article conveniently consists of seven parts of academic enquiries. In the introduction part of this article (p.149-153), the meaning of objective and norm was stated. Schudson review the previous opinion about economic and technological explanation, and argue these opinions ignores the booster causes the norm to be articulated. Four conditions which encourage the articulation of norm were pointed. Two of these are Durkheimian, the other two are Webrian. The two condition of Durkheimian is to achieve social cohesion, and the Webrian condition is to satisfy social control, both of them can cause articulate moral norms. The second part (p.153-155) discusses the business neutrality in colonial American journalism and its declining in 1770s. The printer in colonial American is just small businessman; they do not have fixed political position and professional theory. They attend to avoid debate and keep neutrality to obtain maximum profit. This situation was broken because of the American War of Independent. The papers were forced to abandon even-handedness, and no objectivity norm appeared in this era. The third part (p.155) states the stenographic fairness phenomena in 19th century American journalism. The aggressive commercialism in journalism is the soil of modern objective. However, in this period, only a narrow concept of stenographic was built. Partisanship wildly exists in 19th century American journalism. The forth part (p.156-158) shows the journalism become an occupational culture in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The journalism tends to be occupational in the 1870s and 1880s. Although the partisanship was not removed, the American reporters gradually have rules for own occupational culture. Interviewing as a popular news form got wildly spread. The advertising income increasing and the cost of printing decreasing encourage the newspaper employed more reporter. Till 1920s, the note-taking interview was wildly accepted...

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