The ideas of Europe have changed. The Congress of Vienna, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Code were all ideological precursors to the revolutionary epidemic that expanded throughout Europe. These conversion of ideas infected the population. Nationalism, Socialism, Liberalism, and Democracy were influencing the people's perception. Revolutions erupted in 1848; which were called the “Springtime of the Peoples.” Rebellions materialized in France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire just to name a few. The contrasting countries had various competing ideological aims, leaders, and goals. These mutinies paved the way for transformation yet were not considered as victorious revolts.
There were various reasons for the populaces' defiance. The Industrial Revolution caused many economic challenges to both the rulers and the people with rapid urbanization and employment challenges to the artisan class. The population had doubled which had left everyone in a food shortage. This agricultural emergency occurred especially in Ireland which lead to an amplitude of Irish migrating to America. There was substandard harvests that raised food-prices 60%; 135% in a single year in Ireland. The financial phenomenon in the coal, iron, and railroad industries were downsizing markets. The soaring fees with decreased salaries produced agonizing impoverishment for the working classes(urban and agricultural). The middle class began to deteriorate likewise; which is when the rulers began to acquire more issues. The revolutions although wide-spread lacked central-organization and had varying reasons for the different outbreaks. Russia (although Russia has a major revolution later on) and England had no outbreaks unlike the rest of Europe. The revolts were managed by the middle class battling for enhanced community circumstances yet thereafter converted views becoming to radical for many middle class people. They failed to attract support from the working class who didn't wish redistribution of wealth; just better social conditions.
It appeared as if the Conservative armed forces had conquered yet several of the modest liberal revisions remained permanent and paved the way for liberal transition over several generations. None of these revolts triumphed but they did modify the predicament of Europe to a degree for instance the abolition of serfdom in Austria. The majority of progress wouldn't be seen until the end of the 19th Century including: the unification of Germany and Italy, and the collapse of the Hapsburg Empire at the end of World War I. The economic and social changes continued to be a challenge for the ruling class who would have to make constant negotiations in order to keep power. Eventually, we see the ideas of liberalism and democracy take hold in the 20th Century.
1. Briefly explain why attempts to create a unified German state during the mid- nineteenth century failed.
Germany was in no sense a...