Rise and fall of the Magan civilization
The transition of humanity from simple life which based on living in villages with small group of people in the Neolithic to establish city states and then civilizations from the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age ,was a tremendous leap in the history of humanity.This transition led people to improve their knowledge and promoted them to be more creative. Therefore, many inventions and discovers were known during this period such as discovering copper and bronze metal , developing cultivation methods , using potteries’ wheel , using sails in the boats,innovating wheels, which were used in transportation and using animals power(Menon,2010:p5). Thus, this age was known the Age of civilizations.
Therefore structure of civilizations changed and improved . Their cities became a center of economy ,politic ,culture and religions . Moreover, societies became hierarchy , on top king , priests and armies commanders and in middle farmers ,artists and craftspeople and in the bottom slaves. Their economy flourished as result of diversity of occupations as well as religion system which played role to demonstrate people .Finally, Knowledge of writing led kings to record economic transactions and social events(Duiker and Spielovgel,p:8).
The earliest city states in the world emergence on the banks of rivers in the Nile in Egypt , the Tigris and Euphrates in Iraq, Indus in India and the Yellow river in China. They prospered as result of availability of natural resources , trade activities and an increase of knowledge. These led their neighbors to emergence as result of trade and increased demand on materials which were not available in those civilization.
Due to development of Mesopotamia and Harappa and Iran states , many other states emergence and grew as result of trade activities such as Magan ( present day in Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates) , Meluhha (In India) and Delmon (Bahrain). From first half of the third millennium BC, clay tablets from Mesopotamia recoded a trade relations between Mesopotamian’s estates with these civilizations. Land Oman peninsula one of these states witnessed , from the end of fourth millennium B.C birth of the new civilization called Magan in Sumerian cuneiform and Makan in Akadian cuneiform(Weisgerber 2007,p:197,198). The Magan was a major partner in intra-regional trade with the other civilizations like Mesopotamia, Syria, Iran , Indus civilization, Yemen and Horn of Africa by exporting copper and diorite Magan civilization which marked in the history of trading with (Cleuziou ,Tosi,2007,p:213).
Clay tablets which were found in south of Mesopotamia indicated that they obtained copper from Magan in the 3rd millennium BC. Texts from the reign of King Sargon about 2350 B.C stated that Magan and Dilmun (Bahrain) and Meluhha(India) ships anchored at harbors of his capital Akkad , loaded and purchased goods including copper, silver,...