Risk Factors Affecting Hispanic Domestic Violence
I. Introduction to Hispanic Intimate Partner Violence as a Social Issue
Domestic violence among Hispanics is a dysfunctional conduct which touches all age groups. The Bureau of Justice (Catalano 2012), reported during the period of 1994 to 2010, the prevalence rate of intimate partner violence in the US declined by 60% percent for all races and ethnicities. In the same time frame, four out of five victims were women who experienced domestic abuse; furthermore, women in the 18 to 24 and 25 to 34 age bracket have experienced the highest frequency of intimate partner violence (Catalano, 2012). There has been an overall drop in Hispanic domestic violence from 1994 to 2010. Domestic violence is a social issue which makes it problematic for a community solution through law enforcement and social workers (Catalano, 2012). There are numerous factors, and consumption of alcohol is not linked with domestic violence, and as acculturation increases, intimate partner violence decreases (Caetano, Caetano, Harris, Ramisetty-Mikler, Vaeth, 2007: 1442).
Domestic violence research in national statistics is recorded, but many occurrences may not be reported for a variety of reasons. Women pursue law enforcement and social services assistance to put an end to the indignities of being abused, which may resolve the problem for some. The statistics done in Hispanic domestic violence are mixed and impalpable together into various ethnicities, and they include: Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American, and South American. In the Caetano et al., (2004) research project, the participants, were recognized as Black of Hispanic origin, Latino, Mexican, Central or South American, or any other Hispanic derivation (Caetano et al., 2004: 65). There was a less specific study than Caetano, and it compared Anglo-American, Mexican, Mexican American, and Puerto Rican males (Aldarondo, Kaufman Kantor, and Jasinski, 2002: 444). It is unlikely that undocumented Mexican population were allowed or willing to bear witness in either of these samples. The NCVS may underestimate the prevalence of Hispanic domestic violence, but changes in availability of law enforcement and social services assistance may be impacting national prevalence rates.
The Ecological Model reports the individual and related association of domestic violence and divides them into four levels that affect behavior: microsystem, meso-system, exosystem, and macro-system (Warner, Lesson 1, 2014).The ecological theory involves four levels: (1) the societal level (macro-system); (2) the community level (meso-system); (3) the relational level (micro system); and (4) the individual level Model. The society level refers to culture and social structure, and some examples would be the patriarchal culture, social norms regarding acceptability of domestic violence and legal remedies. Patriarchy is a form of gender ideology which indicates and encourages male...