Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer Essay

749 words - 3 pages

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder. It affects older adults, though it can occur at any age. Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians has lower rates of bladder cancer increases with age. About 9 out of 10 people with bladder cancer are over the age of 55. Things like smoking and exposure to certain industrial chemicals are major risk factors. Studies suggest that chronic bladder inflammation, a parasitic infection called Schistosomiasis, and some medications used to treat cancer are other environmental risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Genetic factors play an important role in determining bladder cancer risk. The gene is GSTM1. It encodes for the carcinogendetoxification enzyme glutathione S- transferase M1. The other gene is MYC. It is one of the most frequently activated oncogens in human cancers. The GSTM1 gene may modulate the internal dose and affect the risk of developing bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is an excellent model for studying genetic susceptibility and gene-environment interaction in cancer etiology. The candidate gene approach found NAT2 slow acetylator and GSTM1-null genotypes to be bladder cancer susceptibility loci and also demonstrated interactions between these two genotypes and smoking in modulating bladder cancer risk. Recent genome-wide association studies identified at least eight novel genetic susceptibility loci for bladder cancer. Genetic determinants of clinical outcomes have been inconclusive. The future directions are to identify more genetic susceptibility loci for bladder cancer risk and outcome through a genome-wide association study approach, identify the causal genes and variants, study the biological mechanisms underlying the association between the causal variants and bladder cancer risk, detect gene-environment interactions and incorporate genetic knowledge into clinically applicable risk prediction models to benefit patients and public health. There are two groups bladder cancer can be classified in. They are NMIBC and MIMBC. Most of the cases are NMIBC(75-80%). It rarely progress to invasive cancer. However NMIBC can be generally treated successfully but could be a major problem in clinics. Studies of bladder cancer hampered by small sample size and are lagging behind. Treatment heterogeneity is a major concern...

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