This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Rna Interference In Biotechnology And Pharmacetics

1651 words - 7 pages

Almost all biology students learn the fundamentals of gene expression, DNA contains information which is transcribed into RNA to create protein. Students however, are not taught of RNA Interference, the biological process where RNA molecules inhibit a gene’s expression, RNAi for short. While RNAi is a fairly new discovery, its use in modern biological research is groundbreaking. RNA Interference works by binding Double-stranded RNA molecules (siRNA) to a complementary messenger RNA. The enzymes Dicer and Slicer then cleave the chemical bonds which hold the messeger RNA in place and prevent it from delivering protein silencing instructions thus, the term, Gene Silencing. This phenomenon was first discovered by Richard Jorgensen in 1990 when he was trying to produce deeper purple colored petunias by introducing more purple pigment genes to the flower. To his surprise, the purple petunia turned completely white and got the opposite of his predicted result. At the time Jorgensen coined this effect, “Cosuppression”. It was not until 1998 that Andrew Fire and Craig, C Mello explained the process of RNAi and discovered its use in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. Elegans). In 2006 Fire and Mello won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discover of RNA Interference – gene silencing by double stranded RNA”. They utilized the nematode, C. Elegans due to its whole genome being sequenced. This unique characteristic allows for every gene to be tested
2
during RNAi. RNA interference is now applied in many forms of biological science from, Physiology to Biotechnology.
RNA Interference has been successfully applied in many fields of medicines used to treat issues such as, Parkinson’s and Lung Cancer. One study, sponsored by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge suggested that use of RNAi can be used to inhibit the production of the protein PCSK9. PCSK9 causes the destructions of receptors that clean up unnecessary LDL cholesterol in blood. Alnylam conducted an experiment consisting of 32 healthy patients to test the safety of an RNAi drug instead of how well it performed. A competing cholesterol therapy is in progress being run by the Paris based pharmaceutical company, Sanofi. Sanofi plans on using antibodies to target PCSK9 which could lead to an alternative to the commonly used statins drug. Out of the 32 patients in the most recent trial, 24 received a single dose of the RNAi drug. The results showed that the expression of PCSK9 dropped to a staggering average, 70% and a 40% decrease of LDL cholesterol levels. If the PCSK9 inhibition drug deems successful it is still not sure whether the drug will perform well from a business aspect.
Another application of RNAi is in Parkinson’s disease. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have successfully used RNA Interference to uncover several genes which possibly represent new therapeutic targets for treating Parkinson’s disease. These discoveries may also be useful to other diseases cause by damage...

Find Another Essay On RNA Interference in Biotechnology and Pharmacetics

Is biotechnology and genetic engineering a modern development or are they rooted in indigenous knowledge

1885 words - 8 pages , Wine and Yoghurt were all first made using biotechnology Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering can be defined by AgBiosafety (2005) as “the process of manually altering or manipulating an organism’s genome with the aim of introducing one or more traits which do not occur naturally in the organism”. Genes can be transferred between an individual organism and another individual of the same species but they can also be transferred between unrelated

Positive and Negative Advances in Biotechnology. Positive and Negative advances dealing with cloning,stem cell,genetic experimentation, and also "designer babys" are covered in this essay

1307 words - 5 pages have been unsolved due to a lack in technology. Biotechnology has given humanity a great deal of advances with new discoveries, but some may think it's a privilege that is being abused.I believe that biotechnology is one of the greatest discoveries that mankind has achieved this past decade. It has led the way to maintain and improve the quality of life we live. Biotechnology has very positive effects and is encourage by many people, although

Micro RNA and Cardiovascular Analysis

1143 words - 5 pages Micro RNA and Cardiovascular Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide and is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The pathological process of the heart is related to altered expression of genes that are important for cardiac function. Thus micro RNAs have become known as key regulators of gene expression and the recent studies have suggested the potential importance of micro RNAs as

Micro Ribonucleic Acid Analysis

709 words - 3 pages Studies are being carried out using animal models such as mice and zebra fish to understand the importance of micro RNA in vascular development. Knockdown of micro RNA 126 in zebra fish resulted in loss of vascular integrity and haemorrhage during embryonic development (65). Overexpression of micro RNA 92a (66) induced severe defects in inter segmental vessel formation in zebra fish. An independent study reported that deletion of micro RNA 126

Advancements in Biotechnology

778 words - 4 pages occur, may bewilder several; however, with the enlightenment of what biotechnology is, what its applications are, how it is incorporated everywhere without people even realizing, and the ethics that come with this extremely intricate field: some will be a little more at ease. Biotechnology is a field in science that is predominantly genetics. To be a slightly specific, it’s the manipulation of biological procedures for industrial and other

W3 Assignment 1 Discussion

650 words - 3 pages transcribed into RNA which is then translated into proteins. These proteins give us our hair color, eye color, and other traits. Therefore, DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for our traits because DNA codes for RNA which in turn codes for protein (Purpose of DNA, n.d.). Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes? DNA gives an organism its traits through protein

Hunting Down Bad Genes

2048 words - 8 pages experimented a failure as well when their tomatoes with extra non-softening DNA softened quicker than the average, natural tomato (par. 4). RNA interference, also known as RNAi, is the phenomenon behind these strange, genetic contradictions. To understand what is occurring in the petunia and tomato, researchers had to study RNA. Simplifying what RNA is, Gorner explains, “The stuff of genes is called DNA. Stored in the cell nucleus, this genetic material

Personal Statement

1049 words - 5 pages research assistant at Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture at University of Malaya with the hope that I can expand my theoretical and practical knowledge in biotechnology application. Through my current job, I got opportunity to learn basics of molecular biology and biotechnology skills and techniques such as PCR, gel electrophoresis and plant genetic engineering (including DNA and RNA extraction, gene cloning and transformation using

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis; Outline

1588 words - 6 pages Outline on Iportant subjects in DNA and RNA -Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis7-1 DNACells 'know' how to how to produce ATP, how to build cilia and centrioles, howto produce membranes and enzymes.A program, or code, in living cells must be able to duplicate itself quickly andaccurately and must also have a means of being decoded and put into effect.The Genetic CodeBiologists call the program of the cell the genetic code. The work genetic

The RNA world

1129 words - 5 pages Ribonucleic acid is a large part of the modern world as RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is one of the major macromolecules which are known for playing an essential role in all known forms of life. The most common function of RNA is that it is a copy of DNA and is used to create proteins and other organic compounds. To produce a certain protein, it activates the area of DNA that codes for a specific protein needed. Thus it replicates that section of DNA

Gene Expression

699 words - 3 pages transcript. The order that transcription goes in would start with the initiate transcription from a gene by binding the RNA polymerase to the promoter DNA. A promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. The RNA polymerase then splits the double helix DNA molecule into two nucleotides. When doing this the breaking down of the hydrogen bonds between DNA nucleotides occurs. The RNA and DNA helix’s break apart and

Similar Essays

Rna Evolution, Rna Function In Rna Viruses And The Origin Of Life

9784 words - 39 pages longer it attracted more matching nucleotides faster, causing chains to now form faster than they were breaking down.These chains are proposed as the first, primitive forms of life. In an RNA world, different forms of RNA compete with each other for free nucleotides and are subject to natural selection. The most efficient molecules of RNA, the ones able to efficiently catalyze their own reproduction, survived and evolved, forming modern

Biotechnology In Malaysia And Japan Essay

1197 words - 5 pages is definite as any technique that uses living organisms to compose or modify products and services for particular purposes (Murugan & Wins, 2010). The application of biological organisms, systems and processes to the provision of goods and services are describe as modern biotechnology in the world (Teusink & Smid, 2006; Nga, 2005 as cited in Murugan & Wins, 2010). According many scholars, Biotechnology is a significant and massive ground of

Successes And Failures In Biotechnology Innovation

2297 words - 9 pages Successes and Failures in Biotechnology Innovation      When I first started this paper I would have to admit that I was pretty green in the field of Biotechnology, I had a brief understanding but nothing near an in depth understanding of the field. So when I first started looking for a success story, I tied my views on successful innovation in the areas that I am familiar with to the biotech field. The major theme that emerged was that

The Effect Of Meaning Of The Word And Flanker On Amount Of Interference In Colored Naming Task

2490 words - 10 pages The effect of meaning of the word and flanker on amount of interference in colored naming taskAbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the effect of flanker and meaningfulness of the word on Stroop effect by conduction color naming task. Hundred and ninety four participants were selected randomly by 97 PSY2042 psychology students and their participations were voluntary. The experiment consisted of 7 color naming lists; it started with a