Conflict- Sensitive Development Initiatives:
Collier (2007, p. 33) argues that the economic growth is the best way for fragile societies to avoid the conflict trap. UNDP (2003, P.31) notices that the identification of the conflicts’ negative effects on development, the international community did not develop tools to address the civic conflicts factors similar to the tools that addressed the wars between countries. According to UNDP (2003, p. 43) efforts for extreme poverty reduction should be integrated with peace-building and conflict prevention strategies. Based on that, UNDP has developed in 2003 the “Conflict Related Development Analysis (CDA)” tool that is comprised of three steps including the analysis of conflict roots, the current response’s to conflict and the identification of possible points for strategic interventions in the future. CDA framework aims at addressing not only the security and political factors of conflict, but also the underlying economic and social factors (UNDP, 2003, p.7). Similarly, USAID (2012, p.9) considers that the conflict drivers should be considered an integral part of designing development initiatives in conflict areas. Therefore, USAID (2012, p.31) applies “Conflict Analysis Framework, CAF” that is sensitive to conflict situations and works on two key stages: identifying the political economic, social and security factors of the conflict, and then developing intervention programs that are sensitive and responsive to that conflict. The world Bank (2011, p.270) concludes from its review international assistance provided to many countries that working under insecure conditions requires coordinated and integrated work on “development, security, political and humanitarian” issues together.
Do No Harm Principle
Anderson (1999) argues that, in all conflict situations, there are “connectors/ capacities for peace” that link people with each other against “dis-connectors/ capacities for war” that divide people and mobilize conflict. Though it cannot cause or end the conflict itself, international aid is a good sign of solidarity with people affected by the conflict (Anderson (1999, p.67). However, that aid, when interacting with conflict situations, may play a positive role in reducing the conflict or negative and harmful role in mobilizing the conflict regardless to the initial intentions of the aid providers (Anderson, 1999, p.67). It can also contribute to changing the direction of the conflict toward solution or worsening (Goodhand, 2006,p.13). In conflict situations, aid workers focus on dealing with the visible and dominant features of the conflict and therefore they fail to notice or benefit from the peaceful capacities existed in the context (Anderson, 1999). Anderson (1999, p. 67) reviewed case studies from different countries that witnessed violent conflicts and developed the “Do No Harm” principle within her “Framework for Analyzing Aid’s Impact on Conflict”. The framework is comprised of 3 stages...