Role Of α Synuclein Associated Pathological Mechanisms In Traumatic Brain Injury And Parkinson’s Disease Pathological Overlap

1384 words - 6 pages

Introduction: At least, 2.4 million traumatic brain injury (TBI) related hospital visit each year in USA and WHO predicting that TBI will be the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide by 2020 (Hyder, Wunderlich et al. 2007, Centers for Disease and Prevention 2013). Approximately one percent Americans older than 60 years old are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD)(Gazewood, Richards et al. 2013). Millions of them have to adapt to the extensive long-term disability, but its impact does not end there. They often have to depend on other people’s continuous support to survive that significantly impacts our healthcare burden (Stacey L. Kowal 2013). A new meta-analysis and other recent studies provide support for the association of history of head injury (e.g., boxing as in Muhammad Ali’s case leading to PD symptoms) with a higher risk of PD (Goldman, Tanner et al. 2006, Lee, Bordelon et al. 2012, Harris, Shen et al. 2013, Jafari, Etminan et al. 2013). But the pathological link between TBI and PD remains not fully understood and α-synuclein (α-Syn) may play a crucial role (Shahaduzzaman, Acosta et al. 2013). The overall hypothesis for this project is that repeated mild TBI or a moderate TBI when combined with targeted PD gene α-Syn mutations will magnify the pathological link between TBI and PD by accelerating accumulation of α-Syn via altering mitochondrial function and inducing neuroinflammation. Although genetic PD animal models allow us evaluations of the specific aspects of PD pathogenesis, no study has been conducted to determine the progression of the pathology and behavioral deficits in α-Syn transgenic mice after TBI. The studies proposed in this grant application will examine whether α-syn contributing to the TBI and PD pathological overlap. If we can determine the pathological link then we can design appropriate pharmacological therapies that can modulate the interaction between α-Syn mutations and TBI.
Specific Aim: Hypothesis: α-synuclein mutations will magnify the pathological link between TBI and PD. An age-dependent increased expression of α-Syn protein in the brain with a progressive motor deficits starting predominantly at 9 month of age was reported in α-Syn transgenic mice (tg) (Amschl, Neddens et al. 2013). There are no studies that have determined the role of α-Syn protein accumulation on the behavioral and pathological effects of TBI in α-syn transgenic mice. Our group recently reported that TBI precipitates AD-pathology and cognitive deficits in transgenic 3xTg-AD mice (Tajiri, Kellogg et al. 2013). In this study we examine motor recovery and a detail time course of the development of Parkinson’s-like pathology in α-Syn transgenic mice brain after inducing moderate TBI. Thirty-six adult (9 mo) mice (18 transgenic and 18 non-transgenic controls) will be use for this study. Animals will be subjected to moderate TBI using controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. Prior to TBI and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks...

Find Another Essay On Role of α-synuclein-associated pathological mechanisms in Traumatic Brain Injury and Parkinson’s disease pathological overlap

Traumatic Brain Injury Essay

1385 words - 6 pages (2002). Traumatic brain injury when symptoms don’t add up: conversion and malingering in the rehabilitation setting. (Traumatic Brain Injury). The Journal of Rehabilitation, 68.2 p.4. , Retrieved from the Academic OneFile Source database Wininger, Michael and Gagnon (2013). Leveraging the patient support network in traumatic brain injury: traumatic brain injury and associated disorders can obstruct the patient-care pathway. Journal of

Traumatic Brain Injury Essay

2103 words - 8 pages : Morbidity and postacute treatment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 72, 662-666.Dobbins, C., & Russell, E. W. (1990). Left temporal brain damage pattern on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 863-868.Ewing-Cobbs, L., & Fletcher, J. M. (1990). Neuropsychological assessment of traumatic brain injury in children. In E. D. Bigler (Ed.), Traumatic brain injury (pp. 107-128). Austin, TX: PRO

Traumatic Brain Injury

1409 words - 6 pages ., & Anderson, V. (2012). Intellectual, behavioral, and social outcomes of accidental traumatic brain injury in early childhood. PEDIATRICS, 129(2), e262-e268. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0438 McDonald, S., & Flanagan, S. (2004). Social perception deficits after traumatic brain injury: Interaction between emotion recognition, mentalizing ability, and social communication. Neuropsychology, 18(3), 572-579. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.18.3.572 Ottaviano, G

A Traumatic Brain Injury

1905 words - 8 pages , psychological, and social support from physicians, therapists, counselors, families, and peers all play an essential integrative role in the overall well-being of patients who have survived a traumatic brain injury. Thus, the continued study and growing understanding of this complex condition is vital in the fields of both psychology and medicine.

Effects of Neuroplasticity Training in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury

1173 words - 5 pages Introduction Traumatic brain injury, also known as TBI, is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals between the ages of 15 and 25 (5). A TBI can lead to many diffuse effects throughout the body depending on the severity and location of the injury. Some of the more common issues associated with this pathology include disturbed cerebral blood flow, alterations in sensorimotor pathway connectivity, injury to neurons and

Exploring Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

1743 words - 7 pages Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among children and adolescents (Yeates, 2005). The Center for Disease and Control (2010) reported an estimated 1.7 million individuals sustaining TBI annually with 51% of these injuries occurring during periods of cerebral development. Children (0-4 years), older adolescents (15-19 years) and older adults (65+ years) are most likely to sustain TBI (CDC, 2010). Brain injuries

The Treatment and Diagnosing of Traumatic Brain Injury

2054 words - 8 pages Physicians about mTBI”. cdc.gov. N.P., N.D., United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Web. 12 March 2014. Finkel, Alan., Yerry, Juanita. , Scher, Ann., Young, Choi. “Headaches in Soldiers with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Finding and Phenomenological Descriptions”. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face. 52.6. (2012). 957-965. Web. 12 March 2014. Gregory, Debbie. “New Device can detect battlefield TBI’s”. militaryconnection.com

Recognizing Traumatic Brain Injury in Prisons

1468 words - 6 pages Brain Injury Among Prisoners in South Carolina. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. (2012). 27(3):E11-20 “Identifying Traumatic Brain Injury and Developmental Disability in Prison”. Department of Corrections. January 2013. Web. 18 March 2013 Langlois, Jean, Wesley Rutland-Brown, Marlena Wald. The Epidemiology and Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury: A

Neurological Disorder: Traumatic Brain Injury

1175 words - 5 pages induces shearing to the cerebral tissue and produces other forces in the brain and impacts against the frontal and temporal fossae of the skull. TBI is associated with the later onset of neurodegenerative disorders. One of the most common across all severities of closed head injury is diffuse axonal injury (DAI). DAI is a common pathological feature of TBI. It is associated by shearing axons in the hemispheric white matter, corpus callosum, and

Brain Diseases: Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease

2558 words - 11 pages INTRODUCTION Brain, a complex organ, is vital for all of the body’s function. Any somatic and genetic variation in the brain can lead to various pathological and degenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Pick’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis etc. Injuries to the brain have a high tendency to perturb massive areas of the organ which in turn lead to defects in memory, cognition, learning, personality, and various other

Complexities Associated with the Parkinson’s Disease

712 words - 3 pages Before proceeding with caring for Parkinson patients, it is important to understand about the disease. A progressive nervous system disorder, Parkinson’s affects the person’s ability to move, speak or write because of the accelerated loss of the brain chemical dopamine. The symptoms begin in most people after the age of 50. Starting with the slight tremor of the hand, sometimes patients undergo complete stiffness. To this very day, there is no

Similar Essays

Traumatic Brain Injury And Prevention Essay

714 words - 3 pages • Being hit/struck by something • Assault • Surgical injury • Shaken baby syndrome • Boating accidents • Swimming accidents • Playground accidents • Birth injuries • Sports injuries • Medical Malpractice There are signs and symptoms you can look out for to see if you think your loved one may be suffering from a traumatic brain injury including memory loss, unconscious, vomiting, seizure, headaches, suspicion of abuse, changes in behavior skull

Traumatic Brain Injury Essay 924 Words

924 words - 4 pages Injury Stats Roughly 1.4 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury every year in the United States.1 Of these 1.4 million, 235,000 injuries are severe enough to require hospitalization—and 50,000 result in death. More than half (over 700,000) of all of these yearly brain injuries are from sports-related activities, falls, and physical assaults. In the year 2000, traumatic brain injury cost an estimated $60 billion in the United States

Traumatic Brain Injury Essay 1915 Words

1915 words - 8 pages traumatic brain injury will no doubt have serious effects on the functions of these areas, and there will be interconnected consequences. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) at least 1.7 million traumatic brain injuries occur in this country every year. They are classified as either mild, moderate, or severe, depending on severity. They can also be classified by whether there was loss of consciousness or not, or by whether it

Traumatic Brain Injury Essay 1720 Words

1720 words - 7 pages Overview Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children and adults from ages 1 to 44. Motor vehicle crashes, sports injuries, or simple falls commonly result in brain injuries, events causing brain injury frequently occur on playgrounds, at work, or in the home. There are two different types of brain injury: traumatic brain injury and non-traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury happens when a force acts rapidly on