Roles Of Inflammation In Diseases Essay

1248 words - 5 pages

Inflammation could be defined as a medium by which the body tissues respond to all sorts of injury (Roitt, 1997). It is a defence mechanism against infection from injuries. Physical stimuli such as change in temperature, UV radiation, or skin irritation may cause release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines that ensure the immune system provide suitable defence, chemokine that bring leukocytes to the inflammation site, eicosanoids, neuropeptides, etc. Inflammation could be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is an immediate response to trauma; in which the body fights against foreign bodies and heal wounds. Inflammatory mediators are released from the cell, causing immune response. Vasolidation is another stage in acute inflammation; it causes increased blood flow and thus increases permeability of the blood vessels, which then result to the release of plasma protein into the affected tissues (Spector & Willoughby, 1963). It could be characterised by the redness, swelling and increased heat in the affected area. After vasolidation, the inflammatory cells penetrate the injured tissue because of increased permeability. Mast cells are responsible for releasing mediators like cytokine and chemokine that gets rid of dead cells and toxins. This is followed by the release of other important mediators by the endothelial cells. In order to make the inflammatory response effective, leukocytes, other mediators such as Leukotriene and Kinins. Ones chemokine brings leukocytes to the inflammation site, plasma proteins capable of destroying pathogenic agents are initiated, the injury begins to heal, and then acute inflammation ceases. Under normal conditions, the inflammatory response is deactivated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms to avoid prolonged inflammation, otherwise known as chronic inflammation. A good number of cells are fundamental in the initiation of inflammation. For example, mast cells, activation of mast cells release loads of mediators from its cytoplasm. These mediators brings all types of white blood cells such as monocytes which later become macrophages when they enter the tissue, dendritic cells that present antigens, neutrophils, all types of lymphocytes like B cells and T cells which brings about immune response, eosinophil and NK cells to the affected tissue. Stimulated mast cells produce a huge amount of TNF-α which activates all the cells involved in inflammation, to synthesize more on their own. Macrophage, monocytes, and activated platelets give rise to a cytokine called interleukin-1 (IL-1). It has paracrine effects such as activating T cells, initiates blood clotting cascade. It also has endocrine effects such as causing fever and increasing blood pressure. Other important cells in inflammation are bradykinins. They lower blood pressure and increase blood flow to tissues; they induce the capillaries to ease flow of blood content into target tissues. Their effect causes the typical redness and swelling in inflammation.
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