Routers Essay

7329 words - 29 pages

Routers

A router is a type of internetworking device that passes data packets between networks based on Layer 3 addresses. A router has the ability to make intelligent decisions regarding the best path for delivery of data on the network. In this chapter, you will learn how routers use a Layer 3 addressing scheme to make forwarding decisions. In addition, you will learn how devices on local-area networks (LANs) use Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) before forwarding data to a destination. You will learn what happens when a device on one network does not know the MAC address of a device on another network. You will learn that Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is the protocol a device uses when it does not know its own IP address. Lastly, you will learn the difference between routing and routed protocols and how routers track distance between locations. You will also learn about distance-vector, link-state, and hybrid routing approaches and how each resolves common routing problems. In networking, there are two addressing schemes: one uses the MAC address, a data link (Layer 2) address; the other uses an address located at the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model. An example of a Layer 3 address is an IP address. A router is a type of internetworking device that passes data packets between networks, based on Layer 3 addresses. A router has the ability to make intelligent decisions regarding the best path for delivery of data on the network. Bridges and switches use physical, or MAC addresses, to make data forwarding decisions. Routers use a Layer 3 addressing scheme to make forwarding decisions. They use IP, or logical addresses, rather than MAC addresses. Because IP addresses are implemented in software, and refer to the network on which a device is located, sometimes these Layer 3 addresses are referred to as protocol addresses, or network addresses. Physical, or MAC addresses, are usually assigned by the NIC manufacturer and are hard-coded into the NIC. The network administrator usually assigns IP addresses. In fact, it is not unusual for a network administrator to group devices together in the IP addressing scheme, according to their geographical location, department, or floor within a building. Because they are implemented in software, IP addresses are fairly easy to change. Finally, bridges and switches are primarily used to connect segments of a network. Routers are used to connect separate networks and to access the worldwide Internet. They do this by providing end-to-end routing. Routers connect two or more networks, each of which must have a unique network number in order for routing to be successful. The unique network number is incorporated into the IP address that is assigned to each device attached to that network. Example: A network has a unique network number - A. It has four devices attached to it. The IP addresses of the devices are A2, A3, A4, and A5. Since the interface where the router connects to a network is...

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