The Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) is a 20-item self-report questionnaire that is used to assess the number of depressive symptoms that an individual may have experienced over the past week. Sample questions of the CES-D include “I was bothered by things that don’t usually bother me” and “My sleep was restless”. Participants were asked to rate each item on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (less than 1 day) to 3 (5-7 days). Total scores were calculated by reversing items 4, 8, 12, and 16, and then summing all 20 items together. Total scores ranges from 0 to 60, with higher scores indicating the experience of more severe depressive symptoms (Radloff, 1977). A score of 16 or higher indicates the experience of a clinical depressive disorder (Radloff, 1977).
The CES-D was originally developed and tested on a sample of 4,000 individuals within the general population and psychiatric settings (Radloff, 1977). Original evaluations of the CES-D displayed good discriminant validity between the general population and psychiatric inpatient samples. Researchers have also established excellent concurrent validity (Brantley, Mehan, & Thomas, 2000), criterion validity (Harringsma, Engels, Beckham, & Spinhoven, 2004) and construct validity (Cheung, & Bagley, 1998). Validity studies have demonstrated that the CES-D is not specific as a diagnostic tool for depression, but a measure of the severity of depressive symptoms (Fechner-Bates, Coyne, & Schwenk 1994). Studies of the CES-D in both community and psychiatric samples have demonstrated significant correlations with other measures of depression, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (Santor, Zuroff, Ramsay, Cervantes, & Palacios, 1995). Test-retest reliability was between .45 and .70 for time intervals between two weeks and 12-months. Results also indicated high internal consistency in the general population of .85 and even higher in the psychiatric sample (α = .90). Other studies have also found the CES-D to have good internal reliability (Bonhannon, Maljanian & Goethe, 2003). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the current sample was .93, indicating excellent internal reliability.
Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire. The Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTS; Brinker & Dozois, 2009) is a 20-item self-report questionnaire that measures the extent to which individuals engage in rumination. Example questions of the RTS Questionnaire include “I find that my mind often goes over things again and again” and “I have never been able to distract myself from unwanted thoughts”. Each item is rated on a 7-point Likert scale, from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very well). Total scores were calculated by summing all 20 items together. Total scores range from 20 to 140, with greater scores indicating more engagement with rumination (Brinker & Dozois, 2009).
The RTS Questionnaire was designed to offer a broader measure of...