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Operating Systems Are The Very Basis Of Computer Software Programs.

2266 words - 9 pages

Introduction2Characteristics3Multitasking3Application Sharing4Print Sharing4System failure recovery4File Sharing/Locking5Comparison of Operating Systems6Role of Network Administrator8User access8Security Measures9Network Performance9New Purchase Recommendations/ Budget10Maintenance10Bibliography11IntroductionOperating systems are the very basis of computer software programs. They exist in order for users to interact with the computer's hardware. An example would be MS- DOS. DOS however is a single user operating system which can only support input from one user at a time. So if more than one person needs to use a computer's resources or if people want to share files, a different operating system is needed. Hence network and multi user operating systems.Network operating systems such as Windows 2000 Server and Novell Netware allow several people to be connected to each others computer simultaneously for the sharing of files.Multi user operating systems allow many users to share the resources of a processor at the same, for example UNIX, LINUX, or CICS.The main difference between the two operating systems is that networked systems all have their own CPU and memory, whereas multi user systems have one central processor and several dumb terminals.This essay describes and compares all the differences between the two operating systems.Since multi user systems share resources, such as the CPU, memory, storage and input/ output devices, as well as software applications and files, the operating system has to organise and control the access to these resources (called scheduling), the most common way of doing this being the Round Robin strategy where each process has a short but equal time slice. For this reason, multi user operating systems require a great deal of memory in order to work effectively.CharacteristicsMultitaskingA main feature of multi user (and, to an extent, networked) systems is multi tasking. This is where the operating system provides the ability to run two or more programs at once. For example a user could be printing and typing at the same time. In actual fact, although the system appears to be running the tasks together the processor is rapidly switching between the tasks this allows many users to access the shared resources at what appears to them as the same time. However, as mentioned previously, this requires a great deal of memory and as more resources are accessed concurrently, the processor will slow down.There are two types of multi tasking; - co-operative and pre-emptive. Co-operative multitasking is where it is the responsibility of the currently running task to give up the processor to allow other tasks to run. This means that the applications need extra code in order to run and can lead to machines hanging up if one process does no relinquish control of the CPU.Pre-emptive multi tasking is where the applications are forced to give up the CPU after a certain length of time i.e. the operating system automatically "pre-empts"...

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