Does democracy decrease the corruption in a regime?
If a regime is democratic rather than authoritarian, meaning political power is exercised either directly or indirectly through participation, competition, and liberty, then it is likely to be less corrupt, especially in long-standing democracies, and although it does not remove corruption entirely at all, it reduces the level of corruption in the country. Russia, being an authoritarian regime, has a high level of corruption which, although it can be attributed to other factors as well, is largely because the people are not given much say in their government, especially after Putin changed the presidency term limits from four years to six. Although Russia is officially a federal, semi-presidential republic, Vladimir Putin has strongly decreased public participation, liberty, and competition amongst the people, thereby contributing to the corruption level.
Overview of Country
Economic/Political Development and Steps
The GDP per Capita at PPP is $18,100, and is low in comparison with many European countries such as France and Germany, but is high in comparison with the non-European countries such as Nigeria and India; the Human Development Index also follows this pattern, being 57 in comparison to the European and non-European countries. The corruption ranking is quite high, standing at 131, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index of 2016. It is not free and according to The Economist, has been considered an authoritarian regime as of 2011. In regard to the economic development of Russia, it was previously communist before the 1990’s and the economy was declining, mainly because of the totalitarian regime, but has improved since then, making their economic system neither communist, nor liberal. As many other countries, Russia implemented reforms that helped to create a capitalist market; their main technique was shock therapy, which was a process of rapid marketization and in turn led to hyperinflation in 1992. Their current labor force by occupation is: Services - 58%; Agriculture - 10%; Industry - 32%. Russia is industrialized and their main source of revenue is the exportation of oil. As a trend, Russia’s institutions and civil society have been weak and under Putin’s presidency, he has stifled them even more.
The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy Index shows that since 2006, Russia’s “democratic” regime has steadily dropped to an authoritarian regime, as of 2011, which can be attributed to a number of factors listed above.
Russia is officially a federal, semi-presidential republic and uses proportional representation, although is considered authoritarian and unitary since 2011, according to The Economist. They have an lower house called the Duma, virtually controlled by Putin and thereby making its legislative powers weak, and an upper house...