Russian Formalism Essay

3708 words - 15 pages

The Industrial Social Novel: Fiction from FactLaura ThompsonTesoro High SchoolLas Flores, CA"Literary works cannot be taken over like factories, or literary forms of expression like industrial methods. Realist writing, of which history offers many widely varying examples, is likewise conditioned by the questions of how, when and for what class it is made use of." Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), "The Popular and the Realistic"During the nineteenth century poets, essayists, journalists and novelists attempted to depict the multitude of facets of the ever-changing political, social and economic conditions found in England during the Industrial Revolution. Early industrial novels not only described the conditions of the working classes' living and working situations but also offered solutions to the spiraling problems of urbanization and industrialization in some parts of the country. In his novel Sybil, Benjamin Disraeli created his theory of "Two Nations":Two nations; between whom there is no intercourse and no symphony; who are as ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets; who are formed by different breeding, are fed by a different food, are ordered by different manners, and are not governed by the same laws. ""You speak of-" said Egremont, hesitatingly. "THE RICH AND THE POOR."Charles Dickens in his novel, Hard Times, and Elizabeth Gaskell in her novel, North and South, developed their own reconciliation with the "Two Nations", the theory about the growing tensions between the rich and the poor. Dickens and Gaskell also described other tensions, those between men and women and those between the public and private spheres of society and family. Using various writing techniques, both novelists wrote their fictional treatises to inform and educate social realities within a fictional narrative, and subsequently sometimes both authors' authencity of voice and purpose can in the words of Dickens' character, Stephen Blackpool, the martyred weaver, ' be in a muddle'. Such may be the inevitability of the industrial novel's inability to create both plausible plots and realistic social solutions (David 4). It can leave the reader somewhat perplexed and dissatisfied with the resolution of both the narrative and the social experiment, but still the discussion of the social problems in both Hard Times and North and South were novel experiments whether or not they were completely successful. After reading just a few chapters from Hard Times, one cannot escape the heavy-handed use of metaphors to explain the plight of the worker as compared to the conditions the children faced on a daily basis in the Gradgrind school of education. Dickens' proposed paternalistic social solution for the working class reverberated throughout the novel. Many early and contemporary critics of the novel complained of Dickens' overuse of the metaphor to explain his tale, whether...

Find Another Essay On Russian formalism

Thoroughly Post-Modern: Defining My Practice of Photography by Defining an Art Movement

3308 words - 13 pages seeds that would begin to mature come the 1960s. Photography tried to enter the gallery via the pictorialist movement, but it did not last long and photography was revered for its ability to capture and document “truth”. Alfred Stieglitz championed modern photographic art and established the criteria by which photography was practiced as art. Formalism was embraced by American photographers; such as Ansell Adams and Paul Strand (Wells, 2004

Kuleshov Essay

1337 words - 6 pages heavily upon editing. Some consider Kulsehov the father of Soviet Cinema, having been the first to publish about the formal possiblites of the medium and the power of montage editing. A montage is French for assembly or edit, it involves pieces of footage to make a film. During the Russian Revolution Kuleshov documented the war on the Eastern Front in documentary on the Red Front in the 1920s. Around that time, Kuleshov was deeply impressed and

The Music of Dmitri Shostakovich

1643 words - 7 pages , based on the story by Gogol. Against the composer’s on wishes the opera was given a concert performance in June 1929, and was ferociously attacked by the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians and was given poor reviews. When the opera was given its first real performance on January 18, 1930 reviews were generally unreceptive, even from former supporters of the opera. For the first time in the composer’s life he was accused of

Dmitri Shostakovich: A Musical Creative Genius

3748 words - 15 pages Dmitri Shostakovich: Creative Musical Genius "In Shostakovich we have the paradigm of a new, essentially political form of complex inward adjustments, one which requires a new kind of symphony." (Norris 177) Although a lifelong communist and an intense Russian patriot (he applied for and was granted membership into the Communist party in 1960), Dmitri Shostakovich composed under constant fear of public condemnation, often for what he

New Criticism

1811 words - 7 pages New Criticism New Criticism is an approach to literature, which was developed by a group of American critics, most of whom taught at southern universities during the years following the First World War. Like Russian Formalism, following Boris Eikhenbaum and Victor Shklovskii, the New Critics developed speculative positions and techniques of reading that provide a vital complement to the literary and artistic

Dmitri Shostakovich and the Soviet State

2162 words - 9 pages work on his satirical opera The Nose, based on the story by Gogol. Against the composer’s on wishes the opera was given a concert performance in June 1929, and was ferociously attacked by the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians and was given poor reviews. When the opera was given its first real performance on January 18, 1930 reviews were generally unreceptive, even from former supporters of the opera. For the first time in the

Dr. Strangelove - end of the war, and i feel fine

3089 words - 12 pages himself of this, Groeteschele is able to view the Soviets as merely being instruments of calculation and abstract formalism, rather than human beings. Indeed, in defense of his argument that the Americans should strike first so that the Russians will concede, Groetechele states that the Russians are "Marxist-fanatics, not normal people...they don't reason the way you reason, they're not motivated by human emotions such as rage and pity...they are

A Critical Note on New Historicism

3099 words - 13 pages critical enquiry. The literary productions have been bifurcated as ‘works’ and ‘texts’. To elaborate these approaches here one-by-one would be an irrelevant undertaking, but their names are tabulated with their respective time span as: • Russian Formalism ( 1920s-30) • Myth and Archetypal Criticism (1940s-50s) • New Criticism and Phenomenological Criticism (1940s 50s) • Stylistics and Structural Criticism (1960s) • Poststructuralist Criticism

A history and internal analysis of the workings of the Mafia

2716 words - 11 pages , dishonour, belonging and unity. The culture of blood feuds - initiating vendettas against an entire family in retaliation for the sins of one member appears to be in keeping with the mafia's idea that blood is symbolic of the strongest of human bonds.The only protection that the Mafia has for its survival are inflexible rules and uncompromising formalism. Prerequistites for being a man of honour are being male, courage, having the capacity to

Joseph Stalin Single Party Paper

5524 words - 22 pages other necessities was just as bad. Clothes and shoes were practically unobtainable. Many people had not had a single new garment for several years. Housing conditions were frightful. In many places the people were literally tearing the houses to pieces and burning them for fuel. In 1921, the Russian city workers were starving, freezing, and generally impoverished; and as for the peasants, many millions of them were just sinking into what was

Security in the Andean region, diplomacy, post cold war transformations

4841 words - 19 pages Cold War anti-communist posture to the present course of coercive diplomacy toward the drug issue. A fundamental dimension is the overlay of US security imperatives. Regional integration to date has remained largely formalism, limited principally to trade relations and common tariff policies, should not underrate the importance of a regional governance project. (Comunidad Andina de Naciones - CAN) Perhaps what is most striking about the sweeping

Similar Essays

Russian Formalism Essay

1796 words - 7 pages Russian FormalismRussian Formalism is a movement of literary criticism and interpretation that emerged in Russia during the second decade of the twentieth century and remained active until about 1930. It concentrated on analyzing the internal structure of literary texts and involved detailed inquiry into plot structure, narrative perspective, symbolic imagery, and other literary techniques. In other words, it stressed the importance of form and

Russian Formalism Essay

840 words - 3 pages Fairy Palaces and Elephants (a.k.a. Factories and the Machinery inside them)Symbolism, Imagery, AllegoryThis one is from the narrator and runs throughout the novel: the idea that the ugly, square, fact-based, oppressive mills look like fairy palaces with elephants in them when they are lit up at night. The image first pops up as something a person riding by Coketown in a fast-moving train might say - in other words, someone who doesn't know any

Summary Of The Theory Of The Formal Method

499 words - 2 pages In “The Theory of the ’Formal Method”’, written in 1925, the author Boris Eichenbaum outlines and explains the evolution of the Russian For- malist movement and, by that, elucidates it’s main arguments. He states that there is no fixed theory or ready-made system which can be described as the Formalist’s theory. The basis of the formalist position is that the ob- ject of literary science, as such, must be the study of those specifics which

Trotsky Essay

1761 words - 7 pages Russian Jewish Revolutionary leader and Soviet politician, a close friend of Lenin. Trotsky's theory ofpermanent revolution' became unpopular after Stalin had gained power in the Soviet Union. Trotskywas assassinated by one of Stalin's agents. Although Trotsky later condemned the Red Terror, he was, perhaps, one of its first proponents."Things are not going well. The Greek soldiers landed on the shores of Crimea, according to the reports of