System Development Life Cycle Models
Business processes are run by systems. Systems ensure precision and completeness of tasks and data, the division of responsibilities and the combination of all these interfaces (Bender, 2003). The complexity of these systems makes it necessary to have a process that creates and maintains them. This process is known as the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). It is the system that is used to build and maintain software systems.
Systems ensure business continuity as they outlive even the staff that developed them. They also ensure that various tasks are integrated. The complexity of tasks within a system requires that each task is specialized. Ultimately, all the specialized tasks need to be integrated into one interface. The complexity of processes, the need for specialization, the necessity for continuity and the requirement for an interface makes it necessary to build systems through a Systems Development Life Cycle (Bender, 2003).
SDLCs have three main objectives. These are to ensure delivery of high quality services, to provide strong management controls and to maximize productivity (Bender, 2003). The development of SDLC models is based on one traditional model. This model has seven stages namely: planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation and maintenance. This paper looks at five other SDLC models and how they differ from this traditional model.
The waterfall model was one of the first process models to be introduced. It was introduced by Winston Royce in the 1970’s. The waterfall is considered a traditional lifecycles as it has seven stages similar to the traditional model above. According to Wen, Guntamukkala and Tarn (2006), the waterfall model is widely used as a representative of the traditional heavyweight models in system development. The stages of the waterfall model are requirement gathering, analysis, program design, implementation, testing, operations and testing (OSQA, 2009). In this model, all the specifications of requirements are gathered in the beginning leading it to be inflexible during the process of development (Radhika 2013).
This model is referred to as a working model due to its flexibility of the development process (OSQA, 2009). Unlike the waterfall, model which gathers all requirements in the beginning, the prototype model works with the client at every stage of development. It allows the client to interact and experiment with a working representation of the product and makes changes where the client is not satisfied (Wen et al., 2006). The prototyping model differs from the traditional model in the planning, testing and revising stages as it works with the client throughout the development process instead of just the planning stage.
The iterative model is also referred to as the incremental model. It is a combination of the waterfall and prototyping models. This model starts by...