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Saccodon Dariensis (Pisces: Parodontidae): Relation Between Dental Polymorphism And Variation Of The Body Geometry.

1913 words - 8 pages

Five dental morphs have been reported in the parodontid genus Saccodon of Panama, Colombia and western Ecuador. We used geometric morphometrics to determine if specimens of Saccodon dariensis (Meek & Hildebrand, 1913) with two dental morphs (morph I and IV, according to Roberts 1974) in a stream a of the Guatapé river system, Antioquia, Colombia have differences in the size and the shape his body geometry. Differences in size between sex and dental morphs were contrasted by a 2-way ANOVA. The allometric effect was estimated by multivariate regression analysis, the model of allometric slopes were contrasted using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and shape differences between sexes and mouth morphs through principal component analysis (PCA). The specimens with morph IV (its morph have a curved mouth and highest number of preformed replacement teeth for each functional tooth of any characoid) shows a bigger size and a significant sexual dimorphism compared to morph I (its morph have a straight and with more cusps on each tooth than in any other characoids). In addition, the body shape, free of allometry, shows differences between morphotypes and sex within each morphotype. The information generated in this paper is the first approach to understanding the origin and evolution of the oral and dental mouth polymorphisms of Saccodon dariensis.
Introduction
Intraspecific morphological differences have been reported in several wildlife species, which have been described as “trophic polymorphism,” being related to the structures responsible for food and which can confer advantages in the use of the habitat and specific resources (Olsson & Eklöv 2005). This type of polymorphism may be the result of genetic differences between morphotypes or a plastic response (Robinson & Wilson 1994, 1996, Wimberger 1994), and play an important role in the speciation processes. In some species it has been described that the different morphotypes also present differences in other aspects of its biology as the rate of growth, age of maturation and reproduction strategies (West-Eberhard 1989, Wimberger 1994, Skúlason & Smith 1995, Smith & Skúlason 1996). This trophic polymorphism has been reported in fish of the great lakes of Africa, Nicaragua, Europe, South and North America (Sage & Selander 1975, Meyer 1987, Wimberger 1994, Robinson & Wilson 1996, Smith & Skúlason 1996, Ruzzante et al. 1998, Klingenberg 2003, Trapani 2004, Savanbäck & Eklöv 2006, Herler et al. 2010), where two or more morphotypes co-exist within the same systems (Skúlason & Smith 1995). In rivers, trophic polymorphisms are less extensive (Wimberger 1994, Whiteley 2007); however, there are reports in Prosopium williamsoni (Whiteley 2007), Ilyodon furcidens and Ilyodon xantusi (Turner & Grosse 1980). In the last case, the two morphotypes were previously described as two different species, but protein electrophoresis analysis showed that they don’t have genetic differences, suggesting that they...

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