Sameksistens Essay

842 words - 4 pages

Omkring 1800-tallet dukkede der politiske grupperinger op, som var inspireret af de europæiske forestillinger om national uafhængighed og selvbestemmelse. Den græske uafhængighedskrig i 1821-1829 gjorde grækerne til det første folkeslag under Osmannerriget som fik selvstændighed. Dette oprør inspirerede andre folkeslag til at gøre oprør såsom serberne og bulgarerne, som fik selvstændighed i 1878 og 1908. I perioden 1839-1876(tanzimat), indførte Osmannerriget en række reformer, hvilket skulle modernisere imperiet og være mere omfattende med hensyn til de forskellige etniske grupper i imperiet og forhindre strømmen af de stigende nationalistiske bevægelser i landet. Man prøvede derfor at ...view middle of the document...

Bønderne og de fattige havde muligvis alt for travlt til at kunne tænke på deres politiske identiteter. Den stigende tilgængelighed af skoler, som blev administreret af millet-grupperne gjorde det dog muligt for den næste generation at blive indskærpet med nationalistiske følelser.
I 1876 kom Sultan Abdul Hamid ll til magten og afviste den forfatningsmæssige styreform efter tab af områder og indførte en ny slags islamisk identitet, som skulle sikre en forenet muslimsk befolkning. I 1908 blev Abdul Hamid ll afsat af Ungtyrkerne og der blev indført en ny forfatning, som blandt andet til at begynde med skulle være mere rummelig og inkluderende hvad angår minoriteter. Dette holdt dog ikke, da Balkankrigen brød ud i 1912 med en alliance mellem Serbien, Bulgarien, Grækenland, Montenegro mod Osmannerriget. CUP som havde mistet magten før krigen, kom på magten igen med et et-parti diktatur som nu afviste den multikulturelle projekt/Ottomanisme, da der nu skulle oprettes anatolske områder bestående af loyale etniske tyrkere. Da man begyndte at tabe mere og mere land i Osmannerriget, besluttede de Ungtyrkiske ledere, at en udvidelse af imperiet kun kunne foregå ved at inkludere de andre muslimske grupper og samtidig ekskludere dem som man fandt skyldige for tabet af land. Ideen om tyrkisme eller Pan-islamisme dukkede op som det bedste ideal om at bevare imperiet så stort som muligt.
De fleste minoriteter som flygtede fra Osmanerriget eller blev deporteret betegner Balkan krigen som begivenheden der ødelagde alt for dem. Fjendtligheden fortsatte da første verdenskrig brød ud i 1914 og Osmannerriget deltog til krigen på tysk side. Der herskerede fjendtlighed overfor blandt andet græsk-ortodokse kristne i Osmannerriget (millet-i Rum), som man beskyldte for at have hjulpet Grækenland....

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