Samuel Huntington's The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order defines eight major civilizations on the basis of religion. This division of global powers can be used to prove that the Western civilization will never completely dominate the global media. While Western thought tends to lead to a more representative form of government, and consequently a more libertarian or social responsibility-based media, the other belief systems of the global powers tend to lead to more authoritarian government and media formats. This difference creates constant conflict between the global powers, thus disabling any one civilization from subjugating the others.
In The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Samuel Huntington asserts the idea that the end of the Cold War marked the beginning of a realignment of global powers. Huntington believes these powers, or civilizations, can be distinguished by religion, and he divides the post-Cold War world into eight major civilizations: Sinic/Confucian; Japanese; Hindu; Islamic; Orthodox; Western; Latin American; and possibly African (45-47). This division of power among religion is the basis for the argument against complete Anglo-dominance of a "global media." The vast differences among the various civilizations' treatment of the media will prove too great for even the transnational corporations to overcome. To take Huntington's theory one step further, the religious differences among these civilizations will be at the heart of the inability of the Western (Anglo-dominated) world to exert total power over the rest of the world.
Huntington is careful to separate each religion, excepting Japanese, Latin American and African, from any particular country or region with which it is may be associated, as belief systems are not bound by politics. However, for the purposes of this paper, one must associate each religion with one or two countries to have some basis for analysis of the current events pertaining to each religion, and more importantly, the clash between that religion and Western thought. Therefore, Sinic/Confucian thought will be associated mostly with China, Hindu with India, Islam with the Middle Eastern and North African countries, Orthodox with countries of the former Soviet Union and Western with the United States and western European countries. The African continent will only be dealt with in the context of Islam, as traditional African religious are too variant and do not usually fit with one of the four theories of the press.
The Western media is characterized by a Judeo-Christian belief system and a libertarian or social responsibility theory of the press. Typically it is expected that these two sets of ideas will keep their distance from one another, thereby providing as little influence upon each other as possible. This is not true with most of the other world's civilizations/religions. In most other civilizations, the government and the...