3. Origin & Geographical distribution
4. Botanical Description
(Karyotype of Diploid)
(Karyotype of Polyploid)
7. Scope in Pakistan
Species:album, spicatum,paniculatum etc
Other names:Fragrant sandalwood, Indian sandalwood, Australian sandalwood, White Saunders, Yellow Saunders
Sandalwood tree is famous for fragrance. Its tree has aromatic woods. There are twenty five species of santalum in the world. Santalum album (Indian sandalwood) and Santalum spicatum (Australian sandalwood) are the most important species of santalum genus.
Centre of origin:Santalum album - India
Santalum spicatum - Australia
Other countries:Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri-lanka, Hawaii and pacific islands.
YOUNG SAPLING SEEDS
Santalum album is an evergreen tree.It grows upto 4m in Australia but in India it grows taller and gains height upto 20m and width is upto 2.4m. Its bark has different colors like dark brown, reddish, dark grey or blackish and it is smooth in young trees but rough in older trees.
The medicinal parts are the oil extracted from the trunk wood, the heartwood freed from the sapwood & the bark, and the dried wood.
Flower and Fruit:
Flower Ripen Fruit
Flowers are in short pedicled, numerous, small, odorless, erect paniculate inflorescences. No sepals are present and perianth is campanulate, 4-5 mm long and changes from yellow to deep red. Flower has four stamens .Ovary is semi-inferior with 3 ovules is free in the bud & later enclosed in the disc.
Fruit is round, pea-sized drupe. When ripe it has red, purple to black color with diameter upto 1 cm & has hard endocarp & crowned with a scar. Fruit is almost stalkless, single seeded and smooth.
Leaves, stem, Roots:
This is a small evergreen tree up to 10 m high and produce flowers whole year. Bark is smooth but branches are droopy. Leaves are opposite,4 to 6 cm long and 2 cm wide, lanceolate, entire margined. Petiole is long up to 1 cm.
Generic name is derived from Greek ‘santalon’ meaning sandalwood.
Specie name is derived from Latin ‘albus’ meaning white, in allusion to the bark.
This tree wood is aromatic naturally.
This tree is wild in India but now it is also cultivated in India and on Timor & the Sunda Iceland’s.
Volatile oil is 3-5%: chief components santalols (50%...