Sandalwood Tree, Famous For Fragrance Essay

997 words - 4 pages


CONTENTS:

1. Taxonomy
2. Introduction
3. Origin & Geographical distribution
4. Botanical Description
5. Biology
6. Cytogenetics
(Karyotype of Diploid)
(Karyotype of Polyploid)
7. Scope in Pakistan
8. Problems
9. Products
10. Services
11. Uses

SANDALWOOD

Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Santalales
Genus:Santalum
Species:album, spicatum,paniculatum etc
Family:Santalaceae
Chromosome no.2n=2x=20
2n=4x=40
Other names:Fragrant sandalwood, Indian sandalwood, Australian sandalwood, White Saunders, Yellow Saunders
Extraction:Steam distillation

INTRODUCTION:
Sandalwood tree is famous for fragrance. Its tree has aromatic woods. There are twenty five species of santalum in the world. Santalum album (Indian sandalwood) and Santalum spicatum (Australian sandalwood) are the most important species of santalum genus.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
Centre of origin:Santalum album - India
Santalum spicatum - Australia
Other countries:Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri-lanka, Hawaii and pacific islands.

Santalum album

YOUNG SAPLING SEEDS

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION:
Santalum album is an evergreen tree.It grows upto 4m in Australia but in India it grows taller and gains height upto 20m and width is upto 2.4m. Its bark has different colors like dark brown, reddish, dark grey or blackish and it is smooth in young trees but rough in older trees.
Medicinal parts:
The medicinal parts are the oil extracted from the trunk wood, the heartwood freed from the sapwood & the bark, and the dried wood.
Flower and Fruit:


Flower Ripen Fruit

Flowers are in short pedicled, numerous, small, odorless, erect paniculate inflorescences. No sepals are present and perianth is campanulate, 4-5 mm long and changes from yellow to deep red. Flower has four stamens .Ovary is semi-inferior with 3 ovules is free in the bud & later enclosed in the disc.
Fruit is round, pea-sized drupe. When ripe it has red, purple to black color with diameter upto 1 cm & has hard endocarp & crowned with a scar. Fruit is almost stalkless, single seeded and smooth.
Leaves, stem, Roots:


LEAVES

This is a small evergreen tree up to 10 m high and produce flowers whole year. Bark is smooth but branches are droopy. Leaves are opposite,4 to 6 cm long and 2 cm wide, lanceolate, entire margined. Petiole is long up to 1 cm.
Generic name is derived from Greek ‘santalon’ meaning sandalwood.
Specie name is derived from Latin ‘albus’ meaning white, in allusion to the bark.
Characteristic:
This tree wood is aromatic naturally.
Habitat:
This tree is wild in India but now it is also cultivated in India and on Timor & the Sunda Iceland’s.
Compounds:
 Volatile oil is 3-5%: chief components santalols (50%...

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