As you read the passage below, consider how Bobby Braun uses
• evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.
• reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
• stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion,
to add power to the ideas expressed.
Adapted from Bobby Braun, “Space Technology: A Critical Investment for Our
1 Aerospace remains a strong component of our national fabric and is the largest
positive contributor to our nation’s trade balance. However, this technological
leadership position is not a given. To remain the leader in aerospace technology,
we must continue to perform research and invest in the people who will create
the breakthroughs of tomorrow, preserving a critical component of our nation’s
economic competitiveness for future generations.
2 For NASA,1 past cutting-edge technology investments led to design and flight of the
Apollo missions, the space shuttle, the International Space Station and a myriad of
robotic explorers that allowed us to reach destinations across our solar system and
peer across the universe. NASA remains one of the nation’s premiere research and
development agencies, pursuing breakthrough technologies that will expand the
frontiers of aeronautics and space.
3 Unfortunately, the pioneering spirit embodied by this storied agency is endangered
as a result of chronic underinvestment in basic and applied research. In a recent
report on the state of NASA’s technology plans, the National Research Council
offered a stark assessment: “Success in executing future NASA space missions will
depend on advanced technology developments that should already be underway.
However, it has been years since NASA has had a vigorous, broad-based program in
advanced space technology. NASA’s technology base is largely depleted. Currently,
available technology is insufficient to accomplish many intended space missions.
Future U.S. leadership in space requires a foundation of sustained technology
4 America is beginning an exciting new chapter in human space exploration.
This chapter centers on full use of the International Space Station, maturation of
multiple American vehicles for delivering astronauts and cargo to low-Earth orbit,
development of a crew vehicle and an evolvable heavy-lift rocket—two critical
building blocks for our nation’s deep-space exploration future—and advancement
of a suite of new in-space technologies that will allow us to send explorers safely into
deep space for the first time.
1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2 Unauthorized copying or reuse of any part of this page is illegal.
5 By investing in the high payoff, transformative technology that the aerospace