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Scholasticism; What It Is And Who Started It.

2288 words - 9 pages

The idea of scholasticism is a popular belief that is still studied today and means "that [which] belongs to the school." Scholasticism was an attempt to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient and classical philosophers with the medieval Christian theology. The main purpose behind scholasticism was to find an answer to a question. It is not a philosophy on its own, but it is an application used on a philosophy or a theology. Scholasticism is the tool and the method for learning which puts an emphasis on reasoning. There have been a few men in the past that have headed the idea of using scholasticism, including the Saint named Thomas Aquinas, who was an Italian Catholic, who was a philosopher and a theologian that used the scholastic method when he spoke to others.Scholasticism combined logic and semantics into one discipline, and is generally seen to have been the idea that developed the understanding of logic significantly when compared to older sources of thinking. In the highest level of the scholastic, which was between the years 1250 and 1350, scholasticism went from being a way of thinking that only theologians used to a way of thinking that many fields used. Fields of study such as Psychology, epistemology and the philosophy of science eventually took up the idea of scholasticism. During that time, every scholastic thinker was bound to the church doctrine and certain questions of faith could never even be addressed without risking a trial by heresy.During the years of 1400 to 1600, the era was called the humanism years. Scholastics were put in the background and were then forgotten about. At that point, scholasticism was considered a rigid, formalistic, outdated and improper way of handling philosophy. There was a revival in scholasticism in the late 1800's and early 1900's. The ideas of Thomas Aquinas were used again in this period. At this point scholasticism was not used as a form to question, but as a tool to theology. Jewish philosophy and Islamic philosophy both at this time began to use scholasticism with their theologies at this time as well.Scholastics would use a book by one of their renowned scholars, called an auctor, and read the book for a study of investigation. They would use such works as the Bible for instance. The book would be read carefully and critically, the disciples would learn from the theories of the auctor. There would be other sources that would be consulted such as church councils and anything written on that subject, those sources would be referred to, and to make sure the original source, the Bible again for instance, just to make sure there was an accuracy and a common idea to relate to. It did not matter if the work was contemporary or classical. The points on all of the sources would be written down, whether it would be points of agreement or points of disagreement. The written down points would be called sententiae. For instance there may be a contradiction in the Bible, which is where the scholastics...

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