There are three important meals that people should eat on a daily bases: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Children spend the majority of their time at school; therefore, most school age children will eat their breakfast and lunch at school. However, school breakfast and lunch programs were not always available to every student. According to Gordon Gunderson (1971), US Department of Agriculture (USDA) established the National School Lunch Act, signed by President Harry Truman in 1946, and pilot the Breakfast Program in 1966 to ensure that children are getting adequate nutrition.
In 1904, Robert Hunter’s book, Poverty, was a strong influence that pushed the US effort in feeding hungry and needy children in school, and in that same year, John Spargo published his book, The Bitter Cry of the Children, which spread the awareness of how malnourishment affects physical and mental well-being of children (Gunderson, 1971). Children cannot learn on an empty stomach. They will not be able to focus on course materials, which will results in the decrease of test scores; therefore, school foodservice is very crucial to the wellbeing of every students’ success.
As time progress, the foodservice industries has evolved and changes were made according to the increased of labor costs and a critical shortage of skilled food production personnel (Spears & Gregoire, 2004). Conventional foodservice is the traditional operations that were used. It is still the predominate form of foodservice operation; however, many other forms has evolved in order to cut cost and increase efficiency. These new foodservice structures are ready prepared foodservice, commissary foodservice, and assembly/serve foodservice.
In the government effort to reduce federal funding, school lunch programs has been reduce. With a decrease in funding, school boards foodservice management needs to find better way to provide food service for their students at a low cost.
The K-12 foodservice segment is a big business industry. In recent years, a study from U-Pulse showed that there has been an increase in combi-ovens, milk coolers, tabletop steamers, refrigerators, freezers and multifunctional equipment in schools (White, 2010).
A school corporation that contains two elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school are spread out in a ten mile radius. The high schools and middle schools will prepare foods for their students on site. The two elementary schools are five miles apart. One elementary will prepare the food for both elementary schools and deliver it because the other school does not have an adequate kitchen.
Since the high school and middle schools have its own kitchen, a conventional foodservice is use. The school will purchase foods and proceed to preparation and distribution of foods on the same premises. This process is a very labor intensive process. It requires skill labors to cook the food and service the food to the students. This process is also costly...