Science Essay

662 words - 3 pages

stages of cellular respiration: 1. Glycolysis(cytoplasm)2.Krebs Cycle(mitochondria matrix)3.Electron Transport Chain(inner mitochondrial membrane)Lactic acid:(bacteria) waste products are lactic acid and waterAlcoholic: waste products are alcohol, CO2, and waterStomata: pores of leaf surface; Light reactions: 1st stage of photosynthesis- light is stored and converted into chemical energy; Calvin cycle: Dark reaction in plants; forms glucosePigments in a leaf: chlorophyll, carotenoid, tannin, anthocyaninHomologous chromosomes: contain the same genes (may have different alleles)Autosomes: non sex chromosomes; 22 pairsSister chromatids: two identical copies of chromatidsCentromere: structure that holds two chromatids togetherSpindle: microtubules that extended from centioles; moves chromosomes to the center of the cell in Metaphase and across the cellCentriole: pair makes a centromereInterphase (G1,S,G2) Early/late prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, CytokinesisG1- Growth and synthesis S- Replication of chromosomes G2- Preparation for divisionMitosis: two identical sister cells (diploid) Meiosis: 4 haploid sex cellsGametic combinations: 2^# of alleles/genes/chromosomesCrossing over is an exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes; meiosis prophase 1Segregation of allele pairs separate during gametic formation and randomly unite at fertilizationDNA: sugar-phosphate backbone; James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind FranklinBuilding blocks of DNA: nucleotides (nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, phosphateTranscription (nucleus)DNA is unzipped and the mRNA is created while the other strand remains DNA (base pairing \Translation(ribosomes)ThemRNA turns into codons / creates proteinsCodon: 3 bases of an mRNA molecule that codes for a specific proteinHomology: Likeness in structure of different organismsHardy Weinberg Equation: p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1; p = frequency of AA; q = frequency of aa; pq = frequency of AaDarwinian fitness is that genetic contribution of the individual to the next generation's gene pool relative to the average for the populationDirectional selection occurs when selection favors an extreme trait or the other extreme; Change an average of the traitDistributed selection occurs when selection favors the extreme trait values over the intermediate values: Variance increases up as population expands and dividesStabilizing selection occurs when selection favors the intermediate rate over the extreme: typrical decrease in genetic...

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