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Science: 8th Grade Study Guide Essay

1039 words - 4 pages

Chapter 1Experiment: this is how you can solve a problemHypothesis: a guessVariable: what you use to test your hypothesis to see if it holds trueTrial: to tryMaterials: what you needData Tables: charts, tables, graphs/anything you use to organize data(into a table)Safety: to prevent accidentsScience: trying to understand the world around youChapter 8Neutron: *think*: neutron/neutral (no charge)Proton: positive charge *think*proton/positiveElectron: Negative charge- JUST REMEMBER!Matter: anything that takes up spaceElement: matter made up of one type of atomPeriodic Table: organizes elements by the number of protons in each elements nucleusTypes of Matter:Mixture Element CompoundHow fast is "fast"Formula for speed: Distance divided by speedDistance/timeNewton's laws of MotionLaw 1: Inertia: resistance to a change in motionLaw 2: Force=mass*accelerationA=F/MLaw 3= every action has an opposite and equal reactionWork-Work= Force*DistanceWork: when a force moves something through a distance and the force and motion are in the same direction (power and movement)Joule: one Newton-meter (unit for measuring work)Machines (simple)-WHEEL AND AXLE: (doorknob) made with different sized wheels that are connected and turn together-INCLINED PLANE: (ramp) sloped surface used to make lifting things easier-SCREW: (screw) an inclined plane rapped around a rod-LEVER: moves in a fulcrumFirst Class: (See-saw) Our Force....Fulcrum.......Opposing Force {Move things}Second Class: (wheelbarrow) Fulcrum......Opposing Force......Our Force {Easier to lift}Third Class: (Baseball Bat) Fulcrum.......Our Force.......Opposing Force {Faster}Movable Pulleys: 2x Easier for each x-tra wheel than a regular one.Potential Energy- Built up energy.Kinetic Energy- Energy of moving objectsWarmth transfers to cool energy.Chapter 13 Static ElectricityOpposites attractLike charges repelElectrical Energy: the energy of charges in motionStatic Electricity: the buildup or loss of electrons creates a form of potential electrical energyPhases of the MoonA) New MoonB) Waxing CrescentC) First QuarterD) Waxing GibbousE) Full MoonF) Waning GibbousG) Third QuarterH) Waning CrescentEclipses:Solar Eclipse:SUN.....Moon.....EarthMoon makes shadow on EarthLunar Eclipse:Sun....Earth...MoonEarth makes shadow on MoonRemember:My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Nine PizzasE E A A U A R E LR N R R P T A P UC U T S I U N T TU S H T R U U OR E N S NY R EAstronomical Units (AU): Distances from the SunEarth=1 AUConstellations: groups of stars that form patterns in the skyStars-Whit-ish blue - hottestRed - coolestThe Milky-Way Galaxy (ours)There is believed to be as many as 100 billion galaxiesMohs Scale1-Talc 2.5 fingernail2- Gypsum 3.5 copper penny3- Calcite 4.5 Iron nail4- Fluorite 5.5 Glass5- Apatite 6.5 Steel Plate6- Feldspar 7 Streak Plate7- Quartz8- Topaz9- Corundum10- DiamondIgneous Rock- Extrusive: (Earth's surface, lava) Small Crystals: Cools quick: Smooth, glassy {Rhyolite} Intrusive: (Under Earth's...

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