Science and technology in the middle ages flourished because of the need of inventions to make life easier. In Europe, from the 5th century to the 16th century there was a radical change in the inventions made. It was between the fall of the Western Roman empire and the early modern era. This was a time for exploration in new ideas and ways of doing things. Europe invented many things for wars, time-keeping, and for everyday use. These inventions may be still used today. They range from huge mortar to a small set of eyeglasses. Europeans found that life was easier with new better inventions to help them in everything. There are a series of inventions about war because of nearby wars with neighboring civilizations or even within Europe.
War was important to make the civilizations expand. Fist of all, the kings needed a good army with the best weapons they can get. To win battles, they used cavalries and a larger army near the borders of cities. In ancient times, the sword is a famous weapon because there were no enough mortars and guns back then. Some swords that were invented are the claymore which is the traditional long sword with a long handle used for more powerful attacks. For instance, the saber was popular because it had a curved single-edged blade and was long. It would be used in a heavy cavalry. There were also bows that can be used like a ballista which has a long, strong arrow with enough force to destroy an army. Reloading was a hassle so it was greater in large numbers. Knights first used chain mail and then moved on to plate armor which was strong enough to resist a sword slash.
With the need for war came the need for protection. Castles surrounded the king for his protection against enemies. In addition, the castles usually had moats to keep enemies away. The moat was a large man-made ditch around the castle that was filled with water and sometimes crocodiles. A wall may also be around an important city for further protection. The walls had holes where archers could shoot arrows from to kill enemies. A barbican was also used as a fortified out fort to monitor the position of the enemies and villagers. They were very long and usually were placed near castles or entrances. After many years, there were many inventions that were discarded because of a new better version of it. For example, knights used plate bodies instead of chain mail because it could protect against slashes and stabs from swords better.
The Black Death that spread throughout Europe made people aware of diseases and wanted to be protected. During and after the Black Death there was a need to kill diseases. Soap was invented to clean hands and other everyday items. The death percentage dropped and people started to get healthier. Quarantine was also used during the plague to separate ships from the mainland so that if the people in the sailors die they won‘t contaminate that mainlanders. For the plague rat traps were invented which caught mice and rats...