Science In The Renaissance: My Essay Talks About The Discoveries That Da Vinci And Galileo Made. I Compared And Contrasted Their Discoveries To Aristotlean Theory And Each Other.

3319 words - 13 pages

Before the Renaissance, everything was governed by the Pope, the Bible, and the Catholic Church. Everything the Pope said was the absolute truth since he was the one who knew God's word. Aristotelian philosophy was the prevailing explanation for everything since it related most to the Bible: the Earth was the center of the universe, and the heavens were perfect, and everything besides Earth was made of ether. The only forms of science present at that time were alchemy and astrology. Even then, the two sciences still stayed within the limits of the Catholic Church.However, everything changed when a great rebellion against the Catholic Church started in 1517. The Reformation sparked all kinds of challenges to Catholic dogma. Free from the confines of the Catholic Church, a new era called the Renaissance began.Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) were very important scientists of the Renaissance. They differed from each other because Leonardo studied before the Scientific Revolution while Galileo studied while it was occurring. Their works varied in that Leonardo studied Aristotelian ideas and Galileo studied to disprove Aristotle's philosophies.In Florence, Leonardo da Vinci was studying something very similar to Aristotle's studies. He knew a lot about Aristotle's works, and had a great interest in continuing them. His main study was the four elements of the time: earth, fire, wind, and water and the body of the Earth.Leonardo defined gravity on the Earth as a condition of weight and mass, with the heaviest object located at the center of the cosmos. Gravity stabilized all the elements held everything in place. He asserted that gravity was accidental. All the elements of the Earth shifted, thus its center of gravity always shifted. Since the Earth was a mixture of all the elements, he presumed that the Earth was the heaviest of all heavenly bodies, and thus, was at the center of the universe.Though Leonardo believed the universe was geocentric, he didn't believe that day and night was caused by the Sun's orbit around the Earth. Instead, "he held clear views on the Earth's rotation around its own axis: 'the day does not begin simultaneously all over the world, so that, when it is noon in our hemisphere, it is midnight on the other side.'" The only explanation for day and night was the rotation of the Earth on its own axis. He explained that the Sun's orbit had no effect on the Earth's night and day.However, the Sun did have a drastic effect on water on the Earth according to Leonardo. Based on logic and observation, he attacked common sense of the people about the rising of water. "And if you should say,... the sun sucks up and draws water from the roots of the mountains to their summits,... the waters of the subterranean veins would rise higher... but we see the contrary, seeing that in summer rivers lack a great part of their waters." Common sense during his time was that during the summer, the Sun drew up the water from...

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