After World War I, there were many advances in scientific thought. These advances were key in helping the United States of America win World War II. Alexander Fleming, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Sigmund Freud were very important in these findings.
Alexander Fleming, a scientist from Scotland, accidentally made his scientific discovery in 1928. He discovered a type of nontoxic mold that kills bacteria (6). He named the mold penicillin. Australian pharmacologist Howard Florey and German-born Jewish refugee Ernest Chain began the real work of Fleming’s discovery in 1938 at Oxford University (1). They published results from their first experiments on mice in August of 1940. It ...view middle of the document...
They are developing antibiotics. They are used to treat infections all over the world.
Meanwhile, Marie Curie, a Polish-born French scientist, was finding a discovery of her own. She found that the atoms of certain elements spontaneously released charged particles. Curie’s brilliant researches and analyses were inspired by the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerei in 1896 (7). These researches led to the isolation of polonium and radium. Radium was used to alleviate suffering. Curie personally devoted herself to this curing work.
She then realized x-rays could save soldiers’ lives in war (8). The doctors would be able to see bulletls and broken bones. Along with a military doctor, Curie and her 17-year old daughter, Irene, made their way to the battlefront in the fall of 1914 (8). She realized the x-rays were very helpful not only for the doctors, but also for the soldiers. “The use of the x-rays during the war saved the lives of many wounded men; it also saved many from long suffering and lasting infirmity” (Marie Curie).
Today, scientists have further studied radioactivity. They have found that radioactivity can change atoms of one element into atoms of another. This discovery proved that atoms are not solid and indivisible (6).
Another great scientist was also coming up with a theory of his own at this time. German-born physicist Albert Einstein introduced his theories of relativity. He argued that measurements of space and time are not absolute but are determined by the relative position of the observer. Einstein developed a quantum theory of a monatomic gas while accomplishing “valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology” (10). Einstein had a positive view of the problems of physics. He was more than determined to solve them. Einstein determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers.
Einstein did research for ten years trying to include acceleration in the theory (9). He also released a theory of general relativity. He showed that massive objects cause a distortion in space-time, which is felt as gravity (9). After the ending of World War II, Einstein was a lead...