Second-Generation HIT Informaticists
Second-Generation Health Information Technology (HIT) Informaticists were more numerous, better organized, and created changes originally designed by their predecessors. Health informatics includes several disciplines: nursing, medicine, pharmacy, dental, and clinical (Moen & Knudsen, 2013). Collaborative efforts of these disciplines will continue to challenge today’s practice to improve the future of HIT.
Nursing informatics focuses on the information of nursing and is now a distinct specialty (Moen & Knudsen, 2013) that was originally proposed in 1976. Establishing wide-ranging and formal terminology that represents nurses, their clinical practice, and standards of information exchange. Relationships and trends can now be determined through automation via computers and software; whereas in the late 1800’s to the 1960’s automation was using a “punch card” system (Collen, 1994). The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a repository maintained by health organizations that contain quantitative, qualitative, and transactional data in real time. Whereas, the Personal Health Record (PHR) is maintained by the person keeping it. Smart assistive tools are now available as stand-alone applications for everyday use.
The designers of technology products focus on the performance of their system. When technology develops, people have to change their usual way of practice. The acceptance of change and behavior modification seems more of a problem today than the technology’s performance during systems implementation (Forsythe & Buchanan, 1992). Diana Forsythe is one of the Second-Generation Informaticists and anthropologist whose focus in on human behavior and the non-technical aspects of performance. She stresses that the design process in organizational systems begins with examining the work patterns and process of end-users. Ethnography is a research method used by Forsythe aimed to gather qualitative information on real-world clinical settings and unit complexity. She systematically investigates the information needs of end-users and makes knowledgeable interpretations about features needed to meet those needs (Forsythe, 1992). She demonstrated the ethnographic research approach could identify valuable and unpredicted findings of clinical information management. This ethnographic approach will later be used to augment the development, and the selection of information sustenance tools that prepares end-users to optimize clinical outcomes (Rosenal, Forsythe, Musen, & Seiver, 1995).
Charles Friedman focuses his attention on computer-based decision support systems (DSSs) to improve the quality of patient care and provide real-time advice to providers (Friedman, et al., 1999). Educating providers into expert end-users in collaboration with the DSS can facilitate a correct clinical diagnosis. Additionally, Friedman, et al. suggests that creating an educational role for students would be pertinent to influence...