Second Modernity Essay

1803 words - 8 pages

At this point what I have learned of stratification theory leads me to believe that the post modernist specifically the second modernity pedagogy as outlined here in my notes from class offers the most understandable and relevant theory. The concept that the sources of inequality are fragmented and varied, the structure is ephemeral and transient, it is self achieved through lifestyle and values, mobility is fluid and open and closure is arbitrarily defined. The Marxist theory can definitely be applied in certain situations but doesn’t have the flexibility in structure and mobility that is apparent in the U.S. today. While Weber opens up that there are more nuances and less rigid ascription I believe it is too convoluted to make a workable definition of stratification in our current society. The functionalists certainly highlight some of the reasons that inequality exists but the theory that this is a necessary and positive outcome is certainly not proven by history. The American methods were in depth studies of the society at the time on a small scale but cannot be expanded upon to encompass the complexity that exists today. Certainly Bourdieu brings up some interesting observations about social closure and “habitus” reproducing the structure of inequality but this too seems to exclude the power of the human spirit to transcend their “class” and achieve mobility based upon their own merits.
Bell (1973:967-969) offers the concept of the post-industrial society is a large generalization. Its meaning easily understood within the specification of 11 components of the term:
1. The centrality of theoretical knowledge. 2. The creation of new intellectual technology. 3. The spread of a knowledge class. 4. The change from goods to services. 5. A change in the character of work. 6. The role of women. 7. Science as the imago. 8. Situses as political units. 9. Meritocracy. 10. The end of scarcity? 11. The economics of information.
The existence of knowledge in society becomes the basis of innovations in technology. This technology and other tools of system analysis and decision theory can be used to provide more “rational” solutions to societal problems. The fastest growing group in society is the technical and professional class. In this post industrial society “the new services are primarily human services (principally in health, education and social services) and professional and technical services (eg.,research, evaluation, computers, and systems analysis). The expansion of these services becomes a constraint on economic growth and a source of persistent inflation” (Bell,1973:967). Given this service society work is primarily a game between persons and people will have to learn how to live with one another. These human services also provides expanded employment opportunities for women. For the first time women have a secure base for economic independence, hence a rise in the incidence of...

Find Another Essay On Second Modernity

Modernity in Edgar Allan Poe´s The Man of the Crowd

1633 words - 7 pages century and this phase was named as modernity. A plurality of changes faced out the people life’s, making them satisfied with those changes and in the same time confused. In commons sense, we as humans are not always in favor of changes, and sometimes we refuse to deal with them. “To be modern is to find ourselves in an environment that promises us adventure, power, joy, growth, transformation of ourselves and the world – and, at the same time, that

Midterm Essay

1626 words - 7 pages Marx explained the developments of modernity as byproducts of capitalism and industrialism, which directly transformed self-consciousness and sense of social duty on an individual level. The modern sociologist Tony Bilton, in the second chapter of his text Introductory Sociology, on the other hand, examines numerous social theories, eventually concluding that modernity is not only a product of Marx's idea of industrial capital, but it is also a

Post Modernity

1231 words - 5 pages Post modernity was the successor of modernity in the time line of social change. It celebrates diversity and focuses thoroughly on the importance of the unconscious and puts emphasis on the free. It is an anything goes theory, full of new age beliefs and decisions. There is no consensus regarding when exactly postmodernity started, what it actually is, or whether it even exists. The term 'postmodern' is irrational: modern means now, present

A Battle Between The Traditional and The Modern

1450 words - 6 pages This is an essay about the battle between the traditional and the modern. It has focused on Pound and Yeats’ works in Literature to show the position of each poet’s contribution to modernity. Both poets used different approaches to contribute to modernity. Yeats used classical illusions in his poems to pass the messages and was more focused on culture. This shows his characteristic as a traditionalist more than a modernist (Yeats). Grading his

Modernization Theory by Seymour Lipset

2414 words - 10 pages theory is dead, or according to its principles, that China’s democratization is latent, and will materialize at a later date. Having thrown open its doors to capitalist investment and expanded at a miraculous rate over the past three decades, China has now surpassed Japan to become the second biggest economy in the world. Since the early 1980s, China's economy has metamorphosed from a centrally planned system, largely shut off from international

Revised Paper On German Modernism

1239 words - 5 pages The Significance of Modernity Throughout time, nations have attempted to become independent from one another by discovering means, which would help their citizens experience more fulfilling lives. The dilemma that troubled each of these countries is whether or not innovations, in technology and society, led to a higher quality of life. Modris Eckstein and Marshall Berman examine both, the damages and benefits of modernity. Eckstein looks at

An Analysis of Cultural Communication

1189 words - 5 pages subjects, but also dissemination of non-western cultural mannerisms. Globalization, in other words cannot merely be conceived as a matter of one way, Western imperialism. It must be understood in the process of mutual uneven penetration: with the West permeating the rest and vice versa. The second point is that the process of globalization cannot be thought of simply a homogenizing affair. For it is also, to a certain extent, about

Untitled

1249 words - 5 pages Daniel Gergely 10/19/01 His 223 Jensen First Paper The Significance of Modernity Throughout time, nations have attempted to become independent from one another by discovering means, which would help their citizens experience more fulfilling lives. The dilemma that troubled each of these countries is whether or not innovations, in technology and society, led to a higher quality of life. Modris Eckstein and Marshall Berman examine both, the

The Concept of Tradition in MacIntyre

2291 words - 10 pages tradition at all. So is their spread leading to the death of traditions? An example of an internationalized language of modernity can be the English language. This language, in its use all over the globe as a second language embodies no particular tradition. It is only used as a means to communicate by people who do not belong to the same traditions. Its example can be contradicting Macintyre’s definition of tradition because this language is

Mohan Rakesh, Modernism, And The Postcolonial Present

9589 words - 38 pages English, as the primary sites of modernity, often relegating non-Western spaces and non-Europhone works to the status of "vernacular" art.This essay extends the reach of geomodernism through a discussion of Mohan Rakesh (1925-1972), the iconic post-independence playwright in India's majority language, Hindi, and one of India's leading twentieth-century authors, irrespective of genre and language. As a member of the first generation of Indian

Resistance To The Modernity of American Culture

1213 words - 5 pages In the poem Howl, Allen Ginsberg challenges the political modernity of American culture that enforces the “best minds” to give up their freedom to gain the desired sense of normalcy that is glorified. He states “I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked/dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn looking for an angry fix” (Ginsberg 9). That angry fix that he describes is what all of these

Similar Essays

Modernity Is The Second Name Of Colonization

1715 words - 7 pages [Muhammad Irbaz Khan] Modernity is the second form of colonization The direct colonial rule, which has been gradually vanished after the Second World War, seemed to produce heartening era. After suffering a period of colonization in which sovereignty and independence was no where in sight, colonized people can at last enjoyed the luxury of having own state. However, it did not take long to see that the decline of colonial empires

This Article Argues That Modernity Is The Second Form Of Colonization

2229 words - 9 pages Modernity is the second form of colonizationThe direct colonial rule, which has been gradually vanished after the Second World War, seemed to produce heartening era. After suffering a period of colonization in which sovereignty and independence was no where in sight, colonized people can at last enjoyed the luxury of their own state. However, It did not take long to see that the decline of colonial empires does not always produce an independent

Exploring Counter Arguments To Beck's Theory Of Individualization

1133 words - 5 pages the modernisation of self and society. He speaks of the concept of a second modernity and how the shift from the first to this current epoch of second modernity has produced changes in social structures thus resulting in the concepts of reflexive modernity and individualisation (Atkinson 2007; Beck 2007; Lewis 2006). Hence, this essay will discuss how reflexive modernity and individualisation contributes to an understanding of selfhood by also

Postmodernity: Societal Changes Essay

2553 words - 10 pages As the term postmodernity suggests, it follows on from modernity therefore, to understand postmodernity, we must first understand the concepts of modernity and modernism. Once this is achieved, we can then examine whether present western society is or is not post-modern and what societal changes have led to the development of this debate. Therefore, modernity and its’ key features will be considered first, followed by an examination of the term