The term "secularism" was first used by the British writer George Jacob Holyoake in 1851. Although the term was new, the general notions of free thought on which it was based had existed throughout history. Holyoake invented the term "secularism" to describe his views of promoting a social order separate from religion, without actively dismissing or criticizing religious belief. As an agnostic himself, Holyoake argued that "Secularism is not an argument against Christianity; it is one independent of it. It does not question the pretensions of Christianity; it advances others. Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere, but maintains that there is light and guidance in secular truth, whose conditions and sanctions exist independently, and act forever. Secular knowledge is manifestly that kind of knowledge which is founded in this life, which relates to the conduct of this life, conduces to the welfare of this life, and is capable of being tested by the experience of this life."
Barry Kosmin of the Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture breaks modern secularism into two types: hard and soft secularism. According to Kosmin, "the hard secularist considers religious propositions to be epistemologically illegitimate, warranted by neither reason nor experience." However, in the view of soft secularism, "the attainment of absolute truth was impossible and therefore scepticism and tolerance should be the principle and overriding values in the discussion of science and religion."
The term of secularism comes from Latin, Saeculum that has two connotations which are “time” and “location”. The “time” refers to present and the “location” refers to the world. Then Saeculum means the recent age or present and the present era show the events in the world which means that the events of the present. But then Secularism is an action where the world/ or state cannot be influenced by religion’s thought. It means that secularism is an ideology which was originally developed in the Western world and spread almost all over the world. This understanding has the goal of separating the rights of God with human rights.
According to European history, secularism emerged due to church that obstructs the people’s views on development by science. The church had condemned European scientists such as Copernicus, Gradano, Galileo and many more to have expressed scientific discoveries which were contradictory to the teachings of the church. The emergence of this understanding is also due to the actions of the church which led a religious ceremony that is considered contradictory to the thinking and moral values such as the sale of the letter of Purification of Sins. In this, people were able to buy the Purification of Sins with higher price and being guaranteed to enter the Heaven even though they did evil things before.
Meanwhile, the revolution of European people came and fought against the Church. It began in the leadership of Martin...