Security Sector Reform (SSR) first emerged in the 1990s around Eastern Europe. SSR can help fix dysfunctional security sectors in countries emerging from years of internal warfare. The armed forces and police embrace a new mission of meeting the human security needs of their population. SSR targets all state institutions and ensures the security of the state and its people. Security Sector Reform is optional as well as a “normative concept.” Afghanistan is working on SSR and it is an ongoing struggle for the countries. The goal of SSR in the countries is to organize a way to achieve peace so that the people may not fear the armed soldiers and establish democratic control. Security Sector Reform contributes to sustainable peace in Afghanistan in many ways.
Afghanistan is struggling to sustain the peace; however, Security Sector Reform is the best way for them to head. SSR will not work out smoothly unless fairness and economic needs are met in the countries. Foreign aid and economic development agencies say that foreign aid will not sustain economic development unless the aid is distributed equitably and unless threshold conditions of domestic security have been met, even if effectively utilized in the recipient countries (Kurian). A large security sector is a drain on the limited resources of developing countries. It would be more beneficial to use the resources in certain programs that improve the lives of the people. The reform will therefore last longer and peace can be easily achievable over time.
A case study over Afghanistan, evaluated by Captain Howk, highlights the early effort to rebuild governance in Afghanistan using Security Sector Reform. Howk recommends that SSR be the primary duty for a senior leader so that is does not decline in emphasis and that the refined mission objectives is determined by planners should it be reinstated. The concept of SSR was not solidified in 2002 when the U.S started getting involved in the Afghanistan mess. All of the SSR goals had to ensure that the SSR programs were compatible with and supportive of the Afghan objectives (Howk). A large part in the success of the SSR program in Afghanistan is the short-term objectives that were outlined in the country case study says that you must attack these early on: Make security forces effective, improve management of security expenditures, demobilize and reintegrate unneeded security personnel, replace the military with a police force to provide internal state security, and remove military members from their political roles (Wareham).
Security Sector Reform has benefitted and helped many countries that are faced with conflict. The country Sierra Leone lacked proper systems for command and control of the uniformed personnel, and suffered from insufficient management structures (Ki-Moon). Engulfed in a nasty civil war, the military systems of the country were uncoordinated and the government and armed forces were caused to work at cross purposes. Mr. Conteh...