Concept analysis and concept development are the terms used to refer to the process of bringing clarity to the definition of the concepts used in nursing science. They are generally applied to the process of inquiry that examines concepts for their level of development as seen in their internal structure, use, representativeness, and relationship to other concepts, in the quest to promote better understanding. Much of the conceptual basis of nursing theory has been derived from already established concepts from other disciplines, and a re-examination of these concepts for relevance and fit to nursing, is important for determining its appropriateness of application (McEwen, 2007).
Albert Bandura first described the concept of self-efficacy in 1977 as the belief in one’s capability to execute the actions required to attain a goal. As a construct of self-efficacy, self-judged confidence can be defined as a judgment about one’s perception of ability. Confidence in one’s ability directly affects his/her performance. The ability to learn new skills and knowledge is also affected by an individual’s feeling of self-efficacy. Unlike self-esteem, self-efficacy can differ greatly from one subject or skill to another. Self-efficacy is dynamic because it can change over time as new experiences and new information is acquired. As self-efficacy increases so does one’s self-confidence. Self-efficacy provides the foundation for human motivation, well-being, and personal accomplishments (Leigh, 2008).
There are several techniques, methods, and strategies when it comes to concept analysis. The Wilson (1963/1969) method identifies 11 steps to use in concept analysis. Modifications to the Wilson method were addressed by Rogers (1989), Chinn and Kramer (1991), and Walker and Avant (2005). This paper will describe the use of the Rodgers model analyze the concept of self-efficacy. The Rogers method of analysis consists of the following steps: define the concept, explain surrogate terms, describe concept attributes, identify antecedents and consequences of the concept, and discuss a model case of the concept (Zulkowsky, 2009).
Method of Analysis
Defining the Concept
The concept of interest is self-efficacy. This began in 1977 with Bandura’s social learning theory that was renamed social cognitive theory in 1986, of which self-efficacy was one of the major concepts of his theory. Self-efficacy makes a difference in how people will feel, think, behave, and motivate themselves. A low sense of self-efficacy can be associated with stress, anxiety, depression, and feelings of helplessness. Such individuals also have low self-esteem and become pessimistic about their accomplishments and personal development. In thinking terms, a strong sense of efficacy facilitates cognitive processes and performance in a variety of settings, including the quality of decision-making and academic achievement. When it comes to...