This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Seminar In Criminology Essay

2026 words - 9 pages

Cullen and Agnew (2011) stated that deterrence occurs when a person refrains from committing a criminal act due to the threat of punishment being greater than the chance for a reward. The typical, average, law abiding, rational thinking, and responsible American does not commit crimes. Why? Because it is against the law, and there is a punishment that for most people far exceeds the reward that they will receive for committing the crime. For most people the threat of being punishment or the possibility of being caught for a crime is enough to deter criminal activity. Furthermore, for those people in America that do commit crimes the same question could be proposed. Why? This question is more difficult to answer due to the various explanations as to why people commit crimes. Unfortunately the deterrence/rational choice theories does not answer this question very effectively, other than offering the belief that for some people the reward of committing the crime far outweighs the chance they will be caught and subsequently punished for the crime. This basic risk versus reward decision making is at the core of human behavior, and provides the foundation of what the deterrence and rational choice theories believe. For the purpose of this paper I am going to discuss the origins of the deterrence/rational choice theories for crime. I will discuss why some criminologists support the deterrence/rational choice theories as an important explanation for crime. Furthermore, I will discuss the key problems for the theory that limits its effective’s in criminology and understanding of the causes of crime.
According to Cullen and Agnew (2011) the deterrence and rational choice theories of crimes originated from the ideas generated from Cesare Becarria who is known as one of the first criminologists. Cullen and Agnew (2011) stated that Cesare Beccaria developed the “classical theory” of crime. According to Cullen and Agnew (2011) the classical theory of crime had primarily two parts. Rational decisions are made in which the benefits of violating the law are weighed against possible punishments of violating the law. And to potentially deter crime, the pain of punishment must outweigh the benefit of the gains made through illegal means. Therefore, Cullen and Agnew (2011) stated that according to the classical theory, crime was the result of people choosing to engage in criminal behaviors based on a rational thought process that considered the negative and positive outcomes that were associated with the committing of the crime.
The deterrence theory originated from this “classical school” belief that criminals and non criminals are rational and pursue their own interests based off attempting to achieve positive outcomes and limit negative consequences from their actions. The rational choice theory is very similar to the classical theory and the deterrence theory. Cornish and Clark (1986) stated that the rational choice theory proposes that all offenders that...

Find Another Essay On Seminar in Criminology

International Eugenics Essay

1406 words - 6 pages . Adams a historian of biology at the University of Pennsylvania compiled studies from graduate students in a seminar on the comparative history of eugenics. The project was ground breaking due to the emphasis on regions outside of Britain and the United States. The set of studies produced The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia edited by Adams. By highlighting eugenics on a global scale, Adams provided evidence for

Social Control and Bond Theories Essay

2083 words - 9 pages , Chapters VI, 18, 19) Feldmeyer, B. Seminar in Criminology, Lecture notes 4/2/2014 and 4/9/2014. Gottfredson, M .R., Hirschi, T. (1990) A General Theory of Crime. Stanford: California: Stanford University Press. ( Chapter 5). Gottfredson, M .R., Hirschi, T. (1990) “A General Theory of Crime”. Pp 224-236 in Criminological Theory: Past to Present, edited by Cullen, T.F., Agnew, R. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hirschi, T. (1969

International Eugenics

1843 words - 7 pages . Adams a historian of biology at the University of Pennsylvania compiled studies from graduate students in a seminar on the comparative history of eugenics. The project was ground breaking due to the emphasis on regions outside of Britain and the United States. The set of studies produced The Wellborn Science: Eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia edited by Adams. By highlighting eugenics on a global scale, Adams provided evidence for

authority

1867 words - 7 pages community field for over 8 years; in addition I undertook a criminology degree where I gained a sound theoretical knowledge of young people who offend and those at risk of offending. My counseling skills course equipped me with the necessary tools needed to communicate effectively with young people from different backgrounds.I have actively sought voluntary work (NACRO Bus Stop Project) with young people 13 - 16 who where under supported, excluded

business

1867 words - 7 pages community field for over 8 years; in addition I undertook a criminology degree where I gained a sound theoretical knowledge of young people who offend and those at risk of offending. My counseling skills course equipped me with the necessary tools needed to communicate effectively with young people from different backgrounds.I have actively sought voluntary work (NACRO Bus Stop Project) with young people 13 - 16 who where under supported, excluded

The Christian Perspective on Capital Punishment and Rehabilitation

2873 words - 11 pages punishment which grew from the influence of the positivist school of criminology. Under the impact of this school, modern penal practice has tended to confine attention to the criminal and the circumstances impinging on him, instead of focusing on the crime. The assumption here is that the criminal is simply a victim of psychological disorder brought about by poor socialization in a socially deficient and poor environment. It is argued that since crime is

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

Similar Essays

The History Of Crime And Its Evolution

1758 words - 8 pages The History of Crime and Its Evolution Alan Fetter Seminar On Criminology CRJ 502 18 April 2014 Introduction Usually, crime threatens the security, economy and other interests of a country through actions or omissions that disregard the rule of law. Criminal activity has been evolving in the past several decades and taking on a progressively transnational nature. For instance, open borders and

Restorative Justice Essay

982 words - 4 pages ), pp.1-15. Zehr, H. (1985). “Retributive justice, restorative justice”. In Johnstone (2003) A Restorative Justice Reader: Texts, Sources, Context, (chapter 4, pp.69-82). Braithwaite, J. (2004) “Restorative justice: theories and worries.” Paper presented at the 123rd International Senior Seminar, Tokyo, 14 January-13 February 2003. In Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFEI) (ed.) Resources

The Impact Of Heroin Prices On Robbery Trends

3197 words - 13 pages Behaviour: An Areal Analysis, in Knipe, E. Culture, Society and Drugs: The Social Science Approach to Drug Use. (1995), Waveland Press, Illinois. - Mukherjee, S. and Jorgensen, L. Burglary: A Social Reality, (1986) Proceedings of Seminar on Burglary, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra. - Packer, H, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction, (1968) in Brown, D. et al, Criminal Laws: Material and Commentary on

The Uniform Crime Reporting System

1881 words - 8 pages people, mainly because of societal factors poor, urban, minority youths commit more crimes. Researchers also must be aware that crime is changing due to technology. There is now more instances of cyber theft, and computer crimes than in the past, therefore the dynamics of the people that are capable to commit certain sorts of crimes are changing. Works Cited Feldmeyer, B. Seminar in Criminology. Lecture notes 1/15/2014. Harris, A.J., & Shaw