Hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables is assumed to play a role in the etiology and deteriorating of asthma symptoms in some patients, little is known about allergy to some fruits and vegetables in patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to identify probable sensitization to eggplant, Shiraz grape, melon and mango in patients with asthma.
The study included 50 patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma and 50 healthy individuals with no history of asthma and atopic diseases. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control group with fresh eggplant, Shiraz grape, melon, and mango as well as the commercial extracts of mango and melon.
Among patients with asthma, the most frequent positive skin tests were to eggplant (48%), fresh melon (30%) and extracts of melon and mango (18% for each) which all were significantly different from the control group. Skin sensitization to Shiraz grape and fresh mango showed no difference to control group. Skin tests of 21 patients (42%) were negative to the all tested allergens.
Forty percent of our patients had clinical symptoms to eggplant and more than half of those revealed positive skin tests to fresh extract of this plant.
Key words: asthma, eggplants, grape, mango, melon, skin test
Asthma is an inflammatory condition in response to inhaled or ingested allergens. There are controversies about the role of diet on incidence or worsening the clinical symptoms in these patients. 1,2
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is widely used in Asian countries. Clinical allergic symptoms to eggplant are reported as anaphylaxis, urticaria and oral allergy syndrome. Allergic reaction to eggplant is attributed to cross-reactivity with tomato and grass pollen. 3-5
Shiraz grape (Vitis vinifera) is a dark-skinned grape that historically cultivated around Shiraz, Iran. Today, Shiraz grape is grown throughout the world. Patients with grape allergy present life-threatening anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome or asthma. Allergy to grape is reported to be associated with allergy to pollen, other fruits and latex. 6,7
Melon (Cucumis melo) is one of the most common fruits leads to allergic reactions. It is originated from Asia or Africa. 8 Patients with melon allergy experienced oral and extraoral symptoms. There is a high frequency of cross reactivity between melon and some weeds or pollens. 9
Mango (Mangifera indica) is usually eaten as fresh fruit. The immediate reactions to mango may present as anaphylaxis, angioedema, urticaria, wheezing and dyspnea. Mango antigens have cross reactivity with pollen, banana, tomato, celery and nuts. 10-12
The primary test for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy is skin prick test (SPT) in which a drop of certain food commercial extract is introduced into the dermis. Due to enzymatic degradation of food proteins through isolation, fresh food extracts are preferentially used in skin testing that is called prick- prick test (PPT).
A great number of...