Separate And Unequal: Overcoming Segregation In America

4076 words - 16 pages

At the time of the African-American Civil Rights movement, segregation was abundant in all aspects of life. Separation, it seemed, was the new motto for all of America. But change was coming. In order to create a nation of true equality, segregation had to be eradicated throughout all of America. Although most people tend to think that it was only well-known, and popular figureheads such as Martin Luther King Junior or Rosa Parks, who were the sole launchers of the African-American Civil Rights movement, it is the rights and responsibilities involved in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision which have most greatly impacted the world we live in today, based upon how desegregation and busing plans have affected our public school systems and way of life, as well as the lives of countless African-Americans around America. The Brown v. Board of Education decision offered African-Americans a path away from common stereotypes and racism, by empowering many of the people of the United States to take action against conformity and discrimination throughout the movement.
Segregation restricted the types of opportunities for members of different racial or ethnic groups to intermingle among themselves. Blacks and whites attended separate schools. Especially in the South, school segregation had been supported de jure (concerning law) for generations. Even when the white schools were closer to their residences, black children were often forced to attend the nearest all-black school. Whereas, in the North segregation was more commonly de facto (concerning fact), and the children attended their neighborhood school, which was in most cases only attended by the race that presided more dominantly in that neighborhood. “If children go to school where they live and if most neighborhoods are racially segregated, then the schools are necessarily segregated, too (Kenneth B. Clark).” The problem arose when the public complained that the black schools were in dilapidated conditions, offering poor education, inferior to that of the education the whites were receiving in the nearby all-white schools.
In the landmark Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), a man named Homer Plessy who was seven-eighths Caucasian, and only one-eighth African-American was arrested and found guilty of boarding a whites-only passenger coach car, instead of the “colored car”, bringing about a new mandate of “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites in all aspects of life. Previous to Plessy boarding the whites-only car, he had in fact, been persuaded to purposely get arrested in an effort to repeal the Separate Car Act of 1890, a plan of which did not receive the desired results. Justice John Harlan was the only one of the eight presiding judges in the court, who wrote a dissenting opinion. The mandate later became known as the “Jim Crow” doctrine, named after a black character in minstrel shows. This gave rise to the new era of Jim Crow laws...

Find Another Essay On Separate and Unequal: Overcoming Segregation in America

Has Work Become More Insecure and Unequal in Canada?

1704 words - 7 pages . Anderson.(2003). Aboriginal Children in Poverty in Urban Communities: Social Exclusion and the growing racialization of poverty in Canada. Ottawa, ON: CCSD Retrieved January 2012 from http://www.ccsd.ca/pr/2003/aboriginal.htm The Conference Board of Canada (2011). Hot Topic: Canadian Income Inequality. Is Canada becoming more unequal. Ottawa, ON: AERIC Inc. Retrieved January 2012 from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/hot-topics

The Effects of the Birmingham Campaign on Segregation in America

2065 words - 8 pages Reference USA, 2000. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 29 Sep. 2011. . “Birmingham Jail is so Crowded, Breakfast Takes Four Hours.” The New York Times. 8 May, 1963: 29 Print. “Commentary on 1963.” Civil Rights in the America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999, American Journey. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 29 Sep. 2011. . “Fire Hoses and Police Dogs Quell Birmingham Segregation

Humanity and its Overcoming in Nietzsche

1753 words - 7 pages Untitled Philosophy of Religion Humanity and its Overcoming in Nietzsche Nietzsche so identifies the genesis of morality with that of humanity that what he presents as a genealogy of morals is equally a genealogy of humanity. Nietzsche's concern is with how nineteenth century humanity became what it was and how such humanity could be overcome. In a very real sense what Nietzsche understands as the human is that which Judeo

Segregation in the Past and Present

1149 words - 5 pages the Rosa Parks incident and the start of the Civil Rights Movement. Before this, whites in the south would separate themselves from the colored folks. Giving themselves separate diners, bathrooms, stores, etc. African Americans have the liberty to move around freely today with nothing to separate then from the whites as there was before. Of course there is still segregation going on today in the world of not only the African Americans, but Latinos

Coming of Age in Mississippi and Segregation

1636 words - 7 pages Coming of Age in Mississippi is an autobiography of the famous Anne Moody. Moody grew up in mist of a Civil Rights Movement as a poor African American woman in rural Mississippi. Her story comprises of her trials and tribulations from life in the South during the rise of the Civil Rights movement. Life during this time embraced segregation, which made life for African Americans rough. As an African American woman growing up during the Civil

Overcoming Obstacles in The Outsiders and The Time Traveler

1481 words - 6 pages work, the end result is worth it. Sooner or later, riding a bike is easy! The Outsiders tells the story of 14 year old Ponyboy Curtis,and his struggle with right and wrong in a society in which he is an “outsider”. As Ponyboy, the lower-class gang of "greasers" battle the "Socs," the rich kids, they learn about overcoming the obstacles in their life, which all revolve around social class. Throughout the story, Ponyboy goes through many

Ethnic Enclaves in Canada: Patterns of Exclusion, Segregation, and Clustering

3793 words - 15 pages prejudice or violence against these communities. More disadvantages could involve the restrictions towards employment opportunities, as limiting someone's social networking to others of a similar background could potentially impeding the social integration and civic growth of the community at large. In summary, it is clear that although segregation would likely result in "a social distance that reinforces unequal positions, it also allows for a pocket of

Friendship and Tragedy in John Knowles' A Separate Peace

838 words - 3 pages Friendship and Tragedy in John Knowles' A Separate Peace Some friendships last forever and others do not but in the novel, A Separate Peace (1959) by John Knowles, displays a different kind of friendship. The reader throughout this novel was very entertained. This novel takes place at the Devon Preparatory School in the years of 1942-1943. This story begins when Gene Forrester comes back to the Devon School fifteen years after his

Resolving Conflict and Overcoming Obstacles in Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun

1351 words - 5 pages Resolving Conflicts and Overcoming Obstacles in A Raisin In The Sun   In the play, A Raisin In The Sun, Mother tries to keep everything under control because she believes in her children and their dreams, yet understands that they still need to learn and strengthen their value's as they begin to realize their own aspirations. She is the head of the family around whom the conflicts arise and are resolved. After the death of her husband

The policies and unequal treatment of Australian Aboriginals from settlement through to 1945. I got 90% in this take home history assignment!!!

2377 words - 10 pages regarding the segregation of aboriginals from white Australians. Aboriginals were faced with separate sections in theatres, hospitals with separate wards, hotels refusing to sell alcohol to aboriginal adults and schools that refused enrolment to Aboriginal children. Aboriginal people were also denied maternity allowance and old age pension. These were just many of the degrading attitudes the white community had towards aboriginal society and marked the

A Separate Peace: The Nature of Hatred and Peace This essay discribes the fatal extremes of hate and peace, as seen in John Knowles' "Separate Peace"

569 words - 2 pages In A Separate Peace, hatred and peace influenced many characters. The war functions as a source of hatred, while Finny is a source of peace. Gene injured Finny and realizes that he must change from his jealous and selfish behavior; though Finny's help, his peace slowly transformed Gene into something like Finny. When Leper faced the war by enlisting, the hatred and brutality negatively transforms him into a selfish and uncaring lunatic. There

Similar Essays

Racism, Racial Profiling And Segregation In America

2896 words - 12 pages ; nevertheless, blacks and whites naturally separate because of years of legal segregation. Segregation in our society has become a natural occurrence even though segregation is illegal today. The question that needs to be raised is "Why?" Why is de facto segregation still accepted in the United States? Why is a prominent city like Lexington still facing many of the problems it faced thirty years ago? The answers lie in our culture and our horrific history

Residential Segregation In America Essay

2394 words - 10 pages ” (Massey and Denton 1993, p. 74.75). This criterion is something to keep in mind for later on in this paper. Now that we know what residential segregation is and how it is measured, we now need to look at how segregation happened in the first place and reasons that it is still happening today. History of Residential Segregation in America Since segregation, either legally or not, has been such a large part of American history, it is hard for most

Blacks And Whites: Separate And Unequal A Comparison Of The South African Apartheid System And America's Jim Crow Laws

1369 words - 5 pages access to parks, beaches, and picnic areas; they were barred from many hospitals. Segregation as a social system was begun in the North prior to the Civil War, but, during the last two decades of the nineteenth century, Southern states made it a legal requirement. What had been maintained by custom was to be strengthened by law. The "separate but equal" ideology plagued the social structure of the United States.The popular belief that this country

Lorraine Hansbury's A Raisin In The Sun: Opening The Eyes Of America To Segregation And Inequality

1823 words - 8 pages Ever since her rise to fame, Lorraine Hansberry has opened the eyes of many and showed that there is a problem among the American people. Through her own life experiences in the twentieth-century, she has written what she knows and brought forth the issue that there is racial segregation, and it will not be ignored. Her most popular work, A Raisin in the Sun, not only brought African Americans to the theater, but has given many of